TonyWilliams wrote:Before you get too “preachy” about CARB,s definition, just be cognizant to the fact that a gasoline burning BMW i3 hybrid also gets Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) credit.
Sure does, as has been discussed at length (by me among others) in another topic. While we're at it, since Reg is worried about worker's health and safety while working in African mines under inhumane conditions, I'd think he should also be concerned about African miners involved in the extraction of Cobalt, used in most of the higher energy-density Li-ion chemistries such as NMC and NCA. From the wiki:
. . . Today, some cobalt is produced specifically from various metallic-lustered ores, for example cobaltite (CoAsS), but the main source of the element is as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic and Zambia yields most of the cobalt mined worldwide.
Given the nature of those countries' governments, I wouldn't expect that miner's working conditions in the DRC, CAR or Zambia are likely to be any better than they are in South Africa. A quick Google for "democratic republic of congo miner's working conditions" brings up this as the very first response:
Child labor still rife in Democratic Republic of Congo
. . . According to the UN children's agency, UNICEF, about 40,000 children work in cobalt mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... "The working conditions in the Congolese mines are miserable," Faustin Adeye, who works with the Catholic charity Misereor told DW. "Many children are often physically ruined as a result. There are whole excavations which they dig up with their bare hands using machetes spades."
Adeye said the conditions in some of the cobalt mines located in the southern Democratic Republic of Congo were so bad that at times the children are buried alive when the mines cave in.
Some of the children are as young as 7 years old and many work without any protective clothing, according to the human rights organization Amnesty International.
Here's a Washington Post article that describes the entire cobalt route from mine to consumer:
THE COBALT PIPELINE
Tracing the path from deadly hand-dug mines in Congo to consumers’ phones and laptops
The DRC may be the worst, but I imagine I could find similar examples from the other two countries just as easily, so you get the idea. I guess we should refuse to use any battery containing cobalt from Africa (or any other country with similar conditions) until conditions improve. It's not just cars, of course, but also smart phones, laptops, iPads etc.
As for hazards to the public, like many substances, naturally occurring cobalt is beneficial to life in smaller doses, but can be harmful in higher ones (this isn't counting the artificially-produced radioactive isotope Cobalt-60 used in medicine, but which can also cause cancer through prolonged exposure, or radiation sickness in high doses):
Cobalt is an essential element for life in minute amounts. The LD50 value for soluble cobalt salts has been estimated to be between 150 and 500 mg/kg. In the US, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has designated a permissible exposure limit (PEL) in the workplace as a time-weighted average (TWA) of 0.1 mg/m3. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.05 mg/m3, time-weighted average. The IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) value is 20 mg/m3.
However, chronic cobalt ingestion has caused serious health problems at doses far less than the lethal dose. In 1966, the addition of cobalt compounds to stabilize beer foam in Canada led to a peculiar form of toxin-induced cardiomyopathy, which came to be known as beer drinker's cardiomyopathy.
After nickel and chromium, cobalt is a major cause of contact dermatitis.
Cobalt can be effectively absorbed by charred pigs' bones; however, this process is inhibited by copper and zinc, which have greater affinities to bone char.
My personal conclusion after many years of warnings about this or that substance, not to mention the ubiquitous Prop. 65 warnings that most people ignore, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/general-info/cancer-warning-labels-based-on-californias-proposition-65.html
, is that pretty much any chemical will either cause cancer or be toxic in some other way if someone's exposed to a large enough dose for a long enough time. For example, as a diver I learned that oxygen is toxic at high partial pressures, what the symptoms are, and how to avoid them. While most of the symptoms are relatively mild and none are fatal in themselves, one in particular can indirectly cause death (uncontrollable convulsions due to OxTox can make it impossible to hold a mouthpiece in your mouth, so you drown). Perhaps we should re-energize the campaign to ban Dihydrogen Monoxide
Dihydrogen Monoxide - The Truth
The Truth about DIHYDROGEN MONOXIDE
Dihydrogen Monoxide (DHMO) is perhaps the single most prevalent of all chemicals that can be dangerous to human life. Despite this truth, most people are not unduly concerned about the dangers of Dihydrogen Monoxide. Governments, civic leaders, corporations, military organizations, and citizens in every walk of life seem to either be ignorant of or shrug off the truth about Dihydrogen Monoxide as not being applicable to them. This concerns us. . . .
Dihydrogen monoxide is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and kills uncounted thousands of people every year.
What are the dangers of Dihydrogen Monoxide?
Most of these deaths are caused by accidental inhalation of DHMO, but the dangers of dihydrogen monoxide do not end there. Prolonged exposure to its solid form causes severe tissue damage. Symptoms of DHMO ingestion can include excessive sweating and urination, and possibly a bloated feeling, nausea, vomiting and body electrolyte imbalance. For those who have become dependent, DHMO withdrawal means certain death.
Dihydrogen Monoxide Facts
is also known as hydric acid, and is the major component of acid rain.
contributes to the Greenhouse Effect.
may cause severe burns.
contributes to the erosion of our natural landscape.
accelerates corrosion and rusting of many metals.
may cause electrical failures and decreased effectiveness of automobile brakes.
has been found in excised tumors of terminal cancer patients
Dihydrogen Monoxide Alerts
Contamination is reaching epidemic proportions!
Quantities of dihydrogen monoxide have been found in almost every stream, lake, and reservoir in America today. But the pollution is global, and the contaminant has even been found in Antarctic ice. In the midwest alone DHMO has caused millions of dollars of property damage.
Dihydrogen Monoxide Uses
Despite the danger, dihydrogen monoxide is often used:
as an industrial solvent and coolant.
in nuclear power plants.
in the production of styrofoam.
as a fire retardant.
in many forms of cruel animal research.
in the distribution of pesticides. Even after washing, produce remains contaminated by this chemical.
as an additive in certain junk-foods and other food products.
Stop the horror - Ban Dihydrogen Monoxide . . . .
With the high-incidence of DHMO-caused deaths in Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, banning it should clearly be a top priority. Start circulating your petitions today! And now, hopefully we can return to Mirai-specific posts.