GRA
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Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Wed Feb 14, 2018 6:25 pm

Via GCC:
Ballard announces planned deployment of 500 fuel cell commercial trucks this year in Shanghai
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/20180214-ballard.html

Each of the 500 Dongfeng Special Vehicle trucks is now licensed, plated and powered by a 30 kW fuel cell system that was designed and integrated by Shanghai Reinventing Fire Technology Company Limited (Re-Fire), featuring Ballard FCvelocity-9SSL proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks.

Each box van truck is manufactured by Dongfeng Special Vehicle Co. Ltd., measures 6.4 meters (21 feet) in length, can carry a load of 3.2 tons and has an expected range of more than 330 kilometers (205 miles).

The trucks will be operated by Shanghai Sinotran New Energy Automobile Operation Co., Ltd., a newly established fuel cell electric vehicle operator, and are expected to be used primarily for intra-city deliveries of goods. . . .

    Fuel cell electric commercial trucks represent a large and attractive market opportunity in China, particularly where user requirements favor long range, heavy payloads and fast refueling. Ballard is the premier global PEM fuel cell technology company, so using Ballard-designed fuel cell stacks in our engines was an easy decision.

    With the integration work completed in late-2017, and all 500 commercial trucks having received green license plates for new energy vehicles in Shanghai, we are now preparing for vehicle launch. We expect to deploy all 500 trucks in 2018, subject to parallel activities, including appropriate scaling of fueling infrastructure and our service platform.


    —Robin Lin, Re-Fire CEO

In 2017, the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Information and the Shanghai Municipal Development & Reform Commission launched the “Shanghai Fuel Cell Vehicle Development Plan”, calling for the annual production of 3,000 FCEVs by 2020.

Two recently-constructed hydrogen refueling stations are currently operating in Shanghai, with two additional stations planned for completion in the first half of 2018. As per the “Shanghai Fuel Cell Vehicle Development Plan”, a total of 5 to 10 hydrogen fueling stations are planned by 2020. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9245
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Thu Feb 15, 2018 5:17 pm

Via GCC:
Ballard wins $4.2M program to develop next-gen air-cooled fuel cell stack for forklift trucks
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/20180215-ballard.html

. . . A key objective of the Technology Solutions program is to design and validate an ultra-high durability, high performance air-cooled fuel cell stack for uses in a number of target market applications, including certain material handling applications, with a target operating lifetime of 20,000 hours.

A key market opportunity will be the integration of the next-generation stacks into fuel cell systems for class 3 lift trucks, such as pallet jacks, deployed in high throughput distribution centers and warehouse operations. Other potential applications include systems for stationary continuous and backup power.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9245
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Wed Feb 21, 2018 7:58 pm

Via GCC:
Mercedes-Benz Trucks delivering 10 eActros electric heavy-duty trucks to customers for two years of fleet testing
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/mercedes-benz-trucks-delivering-10-eactros-electric-heavy-duty-trucks-to-customers-for-two-years-of-fleet-testing.html

Mercedes-Benz Trucks will deliver 10 eActros heavy-duty electric trucks in two variants—two- and three-axle variants with gross vehicle weight of 18 or 25 tonnes—to customers in the next few weeks for testing the everyday feasibility and economic efficiency of the vehicles under real-life conditions. . . .

A number of technical and, above all, business-related issues remain outstanding, key among them the range and cost of the batteries, but also the infrastructure required for their use as part of customers’ commercial fleets.

    We are now passing both two- and three-axle variants of our heavy-duty electric truck, the Mercedes-Benz eActros, into the hands of customers. Initially the focus will be on inner-city goods transport and delivery services—the ranges required here are well within the scope of our Mercedes-Benz eActros.

    We have developed a vehicle that has been configured from the outset for electric mobility. Compared with our prototype, quite a few technical changes have been made: the power supply is now ensured by eleven battery packs in all – and wherever possible we have used already proven components that are ready, or very close to ready, for use in series production.

    —Stefan Buchner, Head of Mercedes-Benz Trucks

Participating in the fleet test are ten customers from a variety of sectors in Germany and Switzerland: Dachser, Edeka, Hermes, Kraftverkehr Nagel, Ludwig Meyer, pfenning logistics, TBS Rhein-Neckar and Rigterink from Germany; and Camion Transport and Migros from Switzerland. .
. .

These customers all distribute goods via the road network—but in very different sectors and categories. The scope ranges from groceries to building supplies and raw materials. The vehicles are being used by customers for tasks that would otherwise be completed by vehicles with conventional diesel engines. The range of requirements means that the vehicles are fitted with a variety of bodies.

According to need, refrigerated box bodies, tankers or tarpaulin sides are used. The drivers of the eActros are trained specially to work with the vehicle. The pilot customers will be testing the vehicles in real-life operations for twelve months, after which the trucks will be going out to a second round of customers for a further twelve months. . . .

The drive axle is based on the ZF AVE 130 that has already proved its worth as a low-floor portal axle in hybrid and fuel-cell buses from Mercedes-Benz and is now being fundamentally revised for the eActros. The axle housing has been completely redesigned and is mounted in a significantly higher position, thereby increasing the ground clearance to more than 200 mm.

The drive system comprises two electric motors located close to the rear-axle wheel hubs. These three-phase asynchronous motors are liquid-cooled and operate with a nominal voltage of 400 volts. They generate an output of 125 kW each, with maximum torque of 485 N·m each. The gearing ratios convert this into 11,000 N·m each, resulting in driving performance on a par with that of a diesel truck.

The maximum permissible axle load stands at the usual 11.5 tonnes. The energy for a range of up to 200 km is provided by two lithium-ion batteries with an output of 240 kWh. These have already proved their worth in service with EvoBus GmbH – so can no longer be considered as prototypes. . . .

Discharged batteries can be fully recharged within three to eleven hours, assuming a realistic charging capacity of 20 to 80 kW from a mobile charging device at a fleet depot. The charging standard used is the Combined Charging System, CCS. . . .

The development and testing of the heavy-duty electric trucks in distribution transport forms part of the project Concept ELV², which is funded to varying extents by Germany’s Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) and Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) to the tune of around €10 million (US$12.3 million). Areas covered by the funding plan include the investigation of the complex challenges involved in the development, assembly and operation of electric trucks. These include the use of high voltages (> 400 V), high currents (up to 1000 A), battery technology (price, weight, durability, service life, charging time), range and energy requirements, charging infrastructure and logistics concepts, safety requirements, summer and winter viability as well as questions about customer acceptance of the trucks.

The customer innovation fleet will be on the road until at least mid-2020. Its aim is to establish the energy requirements for a series of specific application scenarios as well as the economic efficiency of the electric trucks, and to compare the environmental performance of the electric trucks with that of diesel trucks in a full Life Cycle Assessment. The findings of this research work will find their way back into the vehicles in the form of on-going optimisation measures. The results will be published, giving potential users the opportunity to optimise their route planning or to develop new business models for their logistics processes.


Update: Lots of detail photos of the truck in the IEVS article here:
Daimler eActros Electric Truck Begins Customer Trials
https://insideevs.com/daimler-eactros-electric-truck-begins-customer-trials/
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9245
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Thu Feb 22, 2018 5:46 pm

Via ABG:
UPS and Workhorse strike deal on electric vans
Smart charging is key as UPS hopes to replace 35,000 delivery vehicles
https://www.autoblog.com/2018/02/22/ups-workhorse-electric-delivery-van/

DETROIT — A deal Thursday between UPS and U.S. electric van maker Workhorse Group Inc shows how the delivery industry is making progress to resolve a major obstacle to deployment of battery-powered commercial vehicles: Charging costs.

UPS, like its rivals in the package delivery business, faces pressure from regulators in major cities around the world to clean up its fleet of petroleum-burning vehicles. UPS is partnering with Workhorse to build an all-new electric delivery van. The first 50 vehicles with a driving range of 100 miles (160 km) will be delivered in 2018.

That range is enough to allow UPS to replace around 35,000 diesel or gasoline delivery trucks
, company officials said. Until recently, however, UPS would have faced substantial costs for the charging stations and related infrastructure to top up the batteries at the end of the day. . . .

Solutions for the charging problem are now in sight, UPS and other industry officials say. UPS recently rolled out "smart charging" software at a central London facility that allowed the company to nearly triple its local electric fleet to 170 delivery vans.

The smart charging technology determines when and how fast to charge vehicles. If vehicles are not scheduled for a full route the next day, the system can opt not to fully charge them and charge other vehicles more. Without the software, UPS would have had to install enough infrastructure to charge all the vehicles at the same time - the equivalent of powering an office building or hospital - at a cost of millions of dollars for electric grid hardware. . . .

If successful, UPS will use its London experience as a blueprint around the world as it expands its electric delivery vehicle fleet. UPS' approach could also serve as a model for smaller companies that cannot afford major infrastructure investments. . . .

Charging costs are critical as delivery fleet operators calculate the costs of switching to electric vehicles.

Hermes, a European delivery service, plans to deploy 1,500 electric Mercedes vans, and is working with Daimler AG's commercial van unit to design recharging systems that do not require new transformers or large numbers of individual charging stations, said Benjamin Kaehler, head of Mercedes' electric van business.

Mercedes' goal is to structure charging costs so an electric van has the same total cost of ownership as a petroleum-fueled van over three years, Kaehler told Reuters. Cheaper charging is key to that goal. . . .

Developing the battery plants and charging infrastructure to fund an electrified global vehicle fleet could require an investment of $2.7 trillion by manufacturers and governments - $1.7 trillion in battery plants, manufacturing and chargers, and $1 trillion on distribution and generation capacity, said Balu Balagopal, a partner in A.T. Kearney's energy practice. His estimate is based on an assumption that 64 percent of the global vehicle fleet is electrified by 2040.

Utility regulations are an obstacle. The United States lacks national standards for recovering the costs of electric-vehicle charging infrastructure. . . .

California has moved to allow utilities to recoup investments and is reviewing proposals from utilities to spend more than $1 billion over five years on electrification infrastructure for cars, buses and trucks.

Other states do not allow utilities to spread electric vehicle infrastructure costs across their broad base of ratepayers. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9245
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Fri Feb 23, 2018 4:12 pm

Via GCC:
Mercedes-Benz says electric Vito vans skate through Arctic endurance testing
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/20180223-evito.html

SQL errors when I try to quote.

Also GCC:
BMW Group sees LNG viable long-term alternative to diesel for heavy-duty transport
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/20180222-bmwlng.html

The BMW Group sees LNG as a “sensible, sustainable alternative to conventional diesel”, said Dr. Thomas Irrenhauser, who supervised a two-week pilot test which the BMW Group initiated and implemented together with the truck manufacturer Iveco and the forwarding company Duvenbeck. . . .

Using LNG for heavy-duty transport can offer a range advantage compared to other alternative fuels, BMW said. The Iveco Stralis 400 NP could complete the 530-kilometer (329-mile) daily round trip between Steyr and Regensburg safely with a single tank. With a battery-electric drive, this could require several charging events, depending upon the size of the pack (and hence the cost of the truck). When using CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) it would generally be necessary to install a tank that is three times larger to achieve the same operating range as . . . LNG.

LNG NOx emissions are up to 60% lower, and noise levels during operation are up to 50% lower, compared to diesel, with essentially no particulates. Europe already has 2,000 LNG vehicles on the road, despite the fact that the network of LNG filling stations still has gaps.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9245
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Mon Feb 26, 2018 4:22 pm

Via GCC:
Ontario taking next steps in testing H2 train technology; feasibility study released; concepts from Siemens, Alstom
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/20180226-ontario.html

. . . Kathryn McGarry, Minister of Transportation, released the province’s detailed Hydrogen Rail (Hydrail) Feasibility Study, which found that it would be feasible to build and operate electrified rail service on GO Transit and the UP Express using hydrogen-powered trains at a cost comparable to conventional electrification using overhead wires.

Ontario is engaging with train manufacturers Alstom and Siemens to produce concept designs that incorporate hydrogen fuel cells into bi-level trains similar to those currently used by GO Transit. In addition, the province is issuing a request for proposals (RFP) for designs for a hydrogen fuel cell-powered locomotive, which could lead to a prototype rail vehicle that would be tested on the GO rail network.

Electrifying the GO rail network is part of the largest rail project in Canada as Ontario is investing $21.3 billion to transform GO from a commuter transit system to a regional rapid transit system. Weekly trips across the entire GO rail network will grow from about 1,500 to nearly 6,000 by 2025, with more two-way, all-day and 15-minute service for commuters and families across the region. . . .

The objective of the feasibility study was to determine whether it is technologically feasible and economically beneficial to use hydrogen fuel cells as a power source for electrifying the GO rail service. The study investigated several topics including the scale of the Hydrail System, costs, safety, and implications of implementing this system as well as the risks and opportunities involved.

The feasibility study is based on the train service pattern and rail vehicle fleet mix (locomotives and electric multiple units [EMUs]) that Metrolinx intends to operate on the electrified GO network from 2025.

A software simulation model used data such as the planned types of trains and service patterns. The model generated results that included the amount of hydrogen that the system would need every day and the costs to set up and operate the system. Based on these results and other research undertaken, the study determined several key findings and recommendations. These include:

    It should be technically feasible to build and operate the GO Transit network using hydrogen fuel cell powered rail vehicles.

    The overall lifetime costs of building and operating the Hydrail System are equivalent to that of a conventional overhead electrification system.

    The implementation of the Hydrail System of this scale and complexity has never been undertaken, and presents a different set of risks, as compared to conventional electrification.

There are a number of potential beneficial opportunities that would exist if the Hydrail System is implemented instead of electrifying the GO Transit network through the conventional overhead catenary system. These opportunities include:

    Ability to commence some electrified rail commuter services earlier than the 2025 target date.

    Being able to operate electrified rail services over the whole GO Transit network.

    Sharing some of the costs with other users of hydrogen in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area.

    Being a catalyst for the expansion of businesses with a hydrogen technology focus and the creation of associated high skilled jobs. . . .

Direct link to the feasibility study: http://www.metrolinx.com/en/news/announcements/hydrail-resources/CPG-PGM-RPT-245_HydrailFeasibilityReport_R1.pdf Including references it's 344 pages, so it's not light reading. I'm just getting started. Page 10 mentions some of the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. One of the cost advantages of going with H2 is that electricity to make it can be drawn from the grid off-peak, instead of throughout the day as needed to power the trains with the overhead wires. In short, load shifting with ToU rates. The FC system is sized so that the battery and ultracaps will accelerate the train to cruise speed, the fuel cell will then charge it as will regen for the battery and ultracaps while slowing for the next station.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
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Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Mon Feb 26, 2018 8:50 pm

I seem to have missed this announcement last year:
World's First Hydrogen-Powered Cruise Ship Scheduled
https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/worlds-first-hydrogen-powered-cruise-ship-scheduled#gs.lS1BEno

Viking Cruises has joined the ranks of shipping companies working to introduce fuel cell technology with the announcement last week of plans to build the world’s first cruise ship fueled by liquid hydrogen.

Project manager Serge Fossati told a shipping conference in Norway that the ship will be around 230 meters long and will accommodate more than 900 passengers and a crew of 500. She will be based on the design of the cruise line's other ocean-going ships, such as the Viking Sun. Several tender ships to carry the fuel to the cruise ship are also part of the project. . . .

At present, liquid hydrogen is not produced on a large scale in Europe, but Fossati says that Viking Cruises is in dialogue with Statoil in order to find a solution based on a Norwegian refinery. He wants to use Norwegian suppliers for the project as far as possible. . . .

Last year, Royal Caribbean Cruises (RCL) indicated that fuel cell technology will play a role on its Icon class ships being built by Meyer Turku for delivery in 2022 and 2024. In this case LNG is likely to be the fuel rather than liquid hydrogen. In the meantime, the company said, it will begin testing fuel cell technology on an existing Oasis-class ship in 2017, and will also run progressively larger fuel cell projects on new Quantum class vessels being built in the next several years.

The Icon ships are expected to run primarily on LNG but will also be able to run on distillate fuel, to accommodate occasional itineraries that call on ports without LNG infrastructure.

The introduction of fuel cells represents another dramatic step forward for the maritime industry, which has only made limited experiments using the technology. "We believe fuel cells offer very interesting design possibilities," said Harri Kulovaara, RCL's chief of ship design at the time of the announcement last year. "As the technology becomes smaller and more efficient, fuel cells become more viable in a significant way to power the ship's hotel functions. We will begin testing those possibilities as soon as we can, and look to maximize their use when Icon class debuts . . . ."

Fuel Cells in Shipping

A study on the use of fuel cells in shipping commissioned by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) and produced by DNV GL earlier this year highlighted the wide range of maritime fuel cell projects that are ongoing. The report discusses 12 fuel cell projects involving shipping including FellowSHIP, FCShip, METAPHU, Nemo H2, FELICITAS, SF-BREEZE, Pa-X-ell, US SSFC, MC-WAP, ZemShips, SchIBZ and RiverCell.

Seven different fuel cell technologies are being evaluated: the alkaline fuel cell (AFC), the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), high temperature PEMFC (HT-PEMFC), direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
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Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Tue Feb 27, 2018 5:31 pm

Via GCC:
XL Hybrids unveils first hybrid-electric Ford F-250 at 2018 NTEA Work Truck Show
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/02/20180227-xlh.html

XL Hybrids will display three fleet-ready, electrified pickup truck solutions at NTEA’s Work Truck Show next week in Indianapolis. XL is unveiling the industry’s first XLH hybrid-electric F-250 pickup in its booth, while also displaying an XLP plug-in hybrid-electric F-150.

Both trucks in XL’s booth will be displayed on vehicle lifts so attendees can step under the trucks and see how easily XL systems integrate with the Ford trucks.

Ford will be showcasing a third XL truck in its booth at the NTEA Work Truck Show—this one an XLP plug-in hybrid-electric F-150. Last year, XL became the first company to be recognized as an Electrification Qualified Vehicle Modifier (eQVM) in the new Ford certification program. The company also recently announced the executive order from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) approving XL-outfitted PHEV Ford F-150 pickup trucks for sale in state, an industry first.

Fleets can enjoy an up to 25% increase in miles per gallon—and accompanying reductions in CO2 emissions—on trucks used for rugged towing, hauling capacity, and utility applications. . . .

Installation of XLH hybrid and XLP plug-in systems are completed in just hours on pickup trucks as a Ford ship-thru upfit. Fleets will maintain the complete original equipment manufacturer’s (OEM) warranty and receive a three-year, 75,000-mile warranty from XL on the hybrid powertrain. XLH and XLP will also include the XL Link cloud-based big data analytics system, which collects millions of operational data points, measuring MPG performance, reporting carbon dioxide emissions reductions and other key performance indicators.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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RegGuheert
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Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Thu Mar 01, 2018 11:53 am

It appears German cities are trying to MAXIMIZE TCO: Van Hool to build 40 hydrogen buses for Cologne and Wupertal (Germany); largest fuel cell bus order in Europe to date:
Green Car Congress wrote:The 40 hydrogen buses for Cologne (30) and Wuppertal (10) are hybrid vehicles (fuel cell and batteries) of the Van Hool A330 type with dual axles and a length of 12 meters. They will be equipped with the latest FCvelocity-HD85 85 kW fuel cell modules from Ballard Power Systems and fitted with 210kW Siemens PEM electric traction motors. The bus is designed for 29 seats and 46 (Cologne) and 49 (Wuppertal) standing passengers, with space for two wheelchair users and a stroller.
RegGuheert
2011 Leaf SL Demo vehicle
10K mi. on 041413; 20K mi. (55.7Ah) on 080714; 30K mi. (52.0Ah) on 123015; 40K mi. (49.8Ah) on 020817; 50K mi. (47.2Ah) on 120717; 60K mi. (43.66Ah) on 091918.
Enphase Inverter Measured MTBF: M190, M215, M250, S280

GRA
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Re: AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle and (non-BEV) Bus thread

Mon Mar 05, 2018 5:12 pm

RegGuheert wrote:It appears German cities are trying to MAXIMIZE TCO: Van Hool to build 40 hydrogen buses for Cologne and Wupertal (Germany); largest fuel cell bus order in Europe to date:
Green Car Congress wrote:The 40 hydrogen buses for Cologne (30) and Wuppertal (10) are hybrid vehicles (fuel cell and batteries) of the Van Hool A330 type with dual axles and a length of 12 meters. They will be equipped with the latest FCvelocity-HD85 85 kW fuel cell modules from Ballard Power Systems and fitted with 210kW Siemens PEM electric traction motors. The bus is designed for 29 seats and 46 (Cologne) and 49 (Wuppertal) standing passengers, with space for two wheelchair users and a stroller.

Perhaps so, although it appears they chose the ZEV option with the lowest TCO that could meet the operational requirements. From the article:
With [GRA: regard] to the hybrid power source, the buses, with a tank capacity of 38.2 kg of hydrogen on board, will be able to carry out a full day’s schedule of 350 km (217 miles).

    Since electric buses in our public transport network do not offer the necessary range, we are pleased that with fuel cells we can use an environmentally friendly drive system in Wuppertal. As we also produce hydrogen with an environmentally friendly method, our project is a one-stop-shop.

    —Ulrich Jaeger, Business Manager at WSW mobil GmbH

I'd be interested in seeing the requirements, as well as which BEV buses they considered and rejected, and comparative costings.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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