Via GCC: http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/03/20180326-seca.html
. . . The highest permitted sulfur content in shipping fuel was sharply reduced at the end of 2014 for vessels sailing in the northern European sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) from 1.00% (10,000 ppm) to 0.10% (1,000 ppm). Before the stricter regulations were implemented, sulfur emissions from the shipping industry were estimated to cause the premature death of 50,000 Europeans each year, because the sulfur forms particles that are swept inland by the wind.
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a method for remotely monitoring emissions from marine vessels, which they’ve used to investigate the effects of the new regulations. The work has been carried out through the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the EU projects Compmon and Envisum.
The method that the Chalmers researchers have developed is based on a combination of established technologies that have been refined and adapted. They include optical remote sensing, physical/chemical analysis using a “sniffer” and monitoring vessels using an Automatic Identification System (AIS). In addition to sulfur, the system can analyze marine emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles, for which the regulations have also been tightened for the shipping industry in recent years.
Some of the measurements were taken using an airplane flying over Denmark, the English Channel and the middle of the Baltic Sea, while others used fixed measuring stations in the approach to Gothenburg, Sweden, on the Oresund Bridge (between Copenhagen and Malmo) and on the Great Belt Bridge in central Denmark. . . .