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GCC: Columbia team organizes available scientific evidence on the effects of air pollution on children’s health

Wed Dec 26, 2018 6:43 pm

. . . The study, led by researchers at the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH), organized the available scientific evidence on the effects of air pollution on children’s health. The paper is the first comprehensive review of the associations between various fossil fuel combustion pollutants and multiple health effects in children in the context of assessing the benefits of air pollution and climate change policies.

The researchers say their goal is to expand the kinds of health outcomes used in calculations of the health and economic benefits of implementing clean air and climate change policies which are largely limited to the effects of air pollution on premature deaths and other outcomes in adults.

The new paper aggregates research on outcomes, including adverse birth outcomes, cognitive and behavioral problems, and asthma incidence. . . .

The researchers reviewed 205 peer-reviewed studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 April 2018 which provided information on the relationship between the concentration of exposures to air pollutants and health outcomes.

The studies relate to fuel combustion by-products, including toxic air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A table provides information on the risk of health outcomes for exposure by study, encompassing research on six continents.

The World Health Organization has estimated that more than 40% of the burden of environmentally related disease and about 90% of the burden of climate change is borne by children under five, although that age group constitutes only 10% of the global population. The direct health impacts in children of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion include adverse birth outcomes, impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and potentially childhood cancer.

Also GCC:
PM2.5, O3 pollution associated with development of Alzheimer’s disease; new study identifies evolving axonal damage

Exposures to concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone at or above the current standards have been linked to neuroinflammation and high risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A 2015 study found a 138% risk of increase of AD per increase of 4.34 micro g/m3 in PM2.5 suggesting long-term exposure to PM2.5, as well as ozone above the current US EPA standards, are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Now, a new study of children and young adults in Mexico City by a team of researchers at the Universities of Montana, Valle de México, Boise State, Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría and Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain Research has identified evolving axonal damage using a novel Non-P-Tau assay for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

The study by heightens concerns over the evolving and relentless Alzheimer’s pathology observed in young Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) urbanites. These findings are published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. . . .
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