Since Lexus was mentioned, I'll mention a side story. I've never owned a Lexus but actually was loaned a Lexus HS 250h for a week sometime between 2009 and 2011.
Ages ago, there was some social media contest thing re: Lexus HS. If you got enough people to vote for you, you could win the use of a Lexus HS for a week. There was also some drawing (I think) to receive a 2 or 3 year lease of it.
I barely made the cut for the HS for a week. I picked a dealer near me and picked up the car. I recall signing some sort of rental agreement and the owner was a bank w/Japanese name (it wasn't well known IIRC so probably not UFJ, Mizuho or Sumitomo). The car was brand new with almost no miles on the clock but already w/Lexus of Bellevue service loaner decal on the back window. I told the service guy I'd be putting a few hundred miles on it. He didn't care. I asked what the arrangement was and what the deal was w/the weird bank. IIRC, Toyota apparently allocates them cars as loaners. The dealer leases them and uses them as service loaners. At the end, of lease, the dealer buys them and sells them as used cars.
Because I won and picked them, they got allocated 1 more car (for the above). So, it sounded like a win win for them.
Yes Toyota does most of that weird marketing stuff though the Lexus brand.
For example we just had the US Open (golf) in town and this dealership got allocated about 50 RX and NX SUVs just for the event. They all got plastered with logos for the golf stuff and the dealership. When the tour left, they all went back to the dealership to be sold as used. A "used" fully decked out 2018 RX with 50-60 miles on the clock for $10k less than the base. And there were about 50 of them. All gone in 2 weeks. That's good movement for a $50k vehicle... And because of those sales, they get even more allotment for the 2019 models. I believe the dealership did keep 2 of them on as loaners because everynow and then you see it driving around still with all the dealer and golf stickers on it.
I am really surprised that more people don't realize that a dealership in the US is not the same as the company that has the logo on the cars they sell. This is the exact thing that Tesla is fighting to allow, direct auto-maker to consumer sales without requiring a 3rd party dealer.