GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Sun Sep 09, 2018 4:23 pm

Via GCC:
Air Products to support first commercial-scale liquid hydrogen-based fueling station in China
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180909-airproducts.html

Air Products signed cooperation and equipment supply agreements with Beijing Sinoscience Fullcryo Technology Co., Ltd. (Fullcryo) to accelerate the development of hydrogen infrastructure and support Fullcryo’s first, and also China’s first, commercial-scale liquid hydrogen-based fueling station.

The two companies will cooperate from demonstration to commercialization, including construction, operation, maintenance, and gas supply for liquid hydrogen-based fueling stations in China.

Under the equipment supply agreement, Air Products will provide two state-of-the-art, integrated Smartfuel technology fueling stations to Fullcryo for constructing the first-of-its-kind station located in Guangdong Province, South China.

In compliance with the SAE’s (Society of Automotive Engineers) J2601 fueling protocol, the station will consist of key components, including a liquid hydrogen storage tank, high-efficiency booster pump, high-pressure gasifier and gaseous storage tank, dispenser, and control system. Its fueling capacity is designed to reach 500 kilograms per day of hydrogen and can be expanded to 1,500 kilograms per day for both 35Mpa and 70Mpa fueling.

Liquid hydrogen-based fueling stations, which involve advanced gas storage and fueling technology, can bring added benefits, including higher throughput, lower energy consumption, and relatively smaller footprint. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Fri Sep 14, 2018 3:32 pm

Via GCC:
CARB preliminarily awards Port of Los Angeles $41M to launch zero-emissions hydrogen-fuel-cell-electric freight project; total cost $83M
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180914-zanzeff.html

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has preliminarily awarded $41 million to the Port of Los Angeles (POLA) for the Zero-Emission and Near Zero-Emission Freight Facilities (ZANZEFF) project. The total project cost for this initial phase is $82,568,872, with partners providing 50.2%, or $41,446,612 in match funding. . . .

The Zero and Near Zero-Emission Freight Facilities project—proposed with support from Toyota, Kenworth, and Shell—provides a large-scale “shore-to-store” plan and a hydrogen fuel-cell-electric technology framework for freight facilities to structure operations for future goods movement.

The initiative will help reduce emissions by 465 metric tons of greenhouse gas and 0.72 weighted tons of NOx, Reactive Organic Gas (ROG) and PM10.

The Zero-Emission and Near Zero-Emission Freight Facilities project is part of California Climate Investments, a statewide initiative that puts billions of Cap-and-Trade dollars to work reducing greenhouse gas emissions, strengthening the economy and improving public health and the environment—particularly in disadvantaged communities.

The Port of Los Angeles will develop the project in several phases, ultimately encompassing initiatives in Southern California, the Central Coast Area, and Merced County. The initial phase is designed to kick-start the leap to a new class of goods movement vehicles, while reducing emissions in designated disadvantaged communities.

The project phases will include:

    Ten new zero-emissions hydrogen fuel-cell-electric Class 8 on-road trucks on the Kenworth T680 platform will be developed through a collaboration between Kenworth and Toyota to move cargo from the Los Angeles ports throughout the Los Angeles basin, as well as ultimately to inland locations such as Riverside County, the Port of Hueneme, and eventually to Merced. The trucks will be operated by Toyota Logistics Services (4), United Parcel Services (3), Total Transportation Services Inc. (2), and Southern Counties Express (1).

    Two new large capacity heavy-duty hydrogen fueling stations will be developed by Shell in Wilmington and Ontario, California. The new stations will join three additional stations located at Toyota facilities around Los Angeles to form an integrated, five-station heavy-duty hydrogen fueling network. Together, they will provide multiple sources of hydrogen throughout the region, including over 1 ton of 100% renewable hydrogen per day at the heavy-duty station to be operated by Shell, enabling zero-emissions freight transport. Stations supplied by Air Liquide at Toyota Logistics Services in Long Beach and Toyota Technical Center in Gardena will serve as important research and development locations.

    Expanded use of zero-emissions technology in off-road and warehouse equipment, including the first two zero-emissions yard tractors to be operated at the Port of Hueneme, as well as the expanded use of zero-emissions forklifts at Toyota’s port warehouse. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Sat Sep 15, 2018 4:43 pm

Via GCC:
Revolve Technologies shows new PCB-based fuel cell range extender
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180915-revolve.html

UK-based Revolve Technologies has revealed the successful completion of a project to develop novel fuel cell technology using printed circuit board (PCB) construction (PCBFC). This is the first time that a PCB-based fuel cell has been developed for use in an automotive environment.

Compared with conventional systems, the PCB fuel cell stack will reduce system costs, deliver reduced weight for a given power output and provide a more flexible form factor.

A Renault Kangoo ZE van with a PCB fuel cell range extender was displayed at the Cenex Low Carbon Vehicle Event at the Millbrook Proving Ground this week past. The 5 kW PCB fuel cell utilizes cost-effective production methods and materials from the PCB industry to reduce the cost and complexity of manufacturing proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

With the PCBFC fitted, an additional range of around 80 miles can be expected on a NEDC cycle with 1.7 kg of hydrogen on board, and by fitting additional hydrogen storage capacity, the range can be extended further.

On the demonstration model, the fuel cell—along with the control system and electronics—is integrated on the vehicle roof under a covered enclosure. The hydrogen storage tank is currently in the loading bay, although a future development could see the tank relocated to the roof.
While the demonstration was shown on a Renault Kangoo, the fuel cell range extender module is designed as an aftermarket kit for all commercial pure EVs. The technology can also be adopted by OEMs in other pure EV segments. . . .

There's a couple of photos.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Sun Sep 23, 2018 4:28 pm

Via GCC:
Toyota Mobility Foundation calls for second round of research proposals to support innovative hydrogen energy solutions
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180923-tmf.html

The Toyota Mobility Foundation (TMF) is calling for research proposals from Japan for 2018 under the Hydrogen Research Initiative established in 2017. (Earlier post.) . . .

In 2017, TMF launched a five-year program to provide grants for fundamental and innovative research that helps develop a “hydrogen society.” It also assembled a screening panel of hydrogen and energy experts from universities and public-sector institutes in Japan to assess the research programs and select the grant recipients. The 10 grantees (earlier post) from the first year of the program continue to discuss their research with panel members.

In this second year of the initiative, an additional research field has been included for consideration. Applicants from both universities and public-sector institutions in Japan are invited to submit proposals in the following research fields:

    Hydrogen generation
    Hydrogen carriers
    Hydrogen applications
    Energy systems
    Social systems utilizing hydrogen (new). . . .

Total budget is approximately ¥100 million (US$890,000); TMF envisions 10-20 projects, with up to ¥10 million (US$89,000) per project.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Tue Sep 25, 2018 6:47 pm

Via GCC:
Ballard introduces next-generation fuel cell stack for heavy duty motive market: FCgen-LCS
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180925-ballard.html

. . . Benefits of the FCgen-LCS, compared to the current generation liquid-cooled fuel cell stack that it will replace, include:

    Lower Cost – Expected 40% reduction in total-cost-of-ownership, achieved through various design and processing improvements, including: improved durability; lower catalyst loading; increased power density; improved unit cell performance; greater efficiency; and optimized high-volume MEA manufacturing processes. (The total-cost-of-ownership comparison is based on life cycle cost of a 50-kilowatt fuel cell stack operating for 50,000 hours with a single refurbishment.)

    Ultra-Long Durability – Planned operating lifetime of more than 30,000 hours – which exceeds the useful lifetime of many vehicles – made possible through improved MEA design and processing, as well as the use of reusable carbon bi-polar plates and molded compression hardware.

    High Power Density – 33% increase in power density, reducing physical stack size for a given amount of power, and thereby enabling tighter packaging into limited available space.

    Freeze Start Capability – Able to start in cold temperatures from -25 deg. C (-13 deg. F).

    Higher Tolerance to Operating Conditions – Higher performance attributes of the stack enable tolerance to a wider range of operating conditions, including: cold weather conditions and freeze start capabilities; operation at temperatures of up to 85 deg. C (185 deg. F), thereby reducing cooling requirements; and compatibility with high- and low-pressure operating conditions.

    Simplified Systems Integration – Several important features simplify systems integration requirements, including: compact design; flexible packaging from 20-to-220 cells; ports located at both ends of the stack provide easier access for fluids as well as the ability to mount the stack in several different orientations; and expanded vehicle integration flexibility for both air and cooling systems, enabled by the stack’s expanded range of operating pressure, humidity and temperature.

    Sustainability – FCgen-LCS features key sustainability design characteristics, including: higher efficiency; the use of reusable low-cost carbon plates and compression hardware; and the ability to recover catalyst material from MEAs.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

User avatar
RegGuheert
Posts: 6332
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Location: Northern VA

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Wed Sep 26, 2018 5:47 am

This video from Real Engineering does a nice job breaking down how H2 FCVs waste so much energy (starting at around the 9 minute mark):



P.S. I'm not seeing the YouTube link. If you can't see it either, click the embedded link above to see it.
RegGuheert
2011 Leaf SL Demo vehicle
10K mi. on 041413; 20K mi. (55.7Ah) on 080714; 30K mi. (52.0Ah) on 123015; 40K mi. (49.8Ah) on 020817; 50K mi. (47.2Ah) on 120717; 60K mi. (43.66Ah) on 091918.
Enphase Inverter Measured MTBF: M190, M215, M250, S280

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Thu Sep 27, 2018 4:23 pm

All via GCC:
ITM Power opens 7th hydrogen refueling station at Johnson Matthey’s Swindon site on M4 corridor
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180927-itmpower.html

. . . The new Swindon HRS is ITM Power’s seventh public access HRS and joins Cobham on the M25, Beaconsfield on the M40, Rainham in Kent on the A14, Teddington in London, Rotherham on the M1 and Kirkwall in Orkney.

Located at Johnson Matthey in Swindon, which is home to the company’s fuel cell component manufacturing facility, the new HRS lies just off the M4 linking South Wales with London. It is now open for public and private fleets operating fuel cell electric vehicles. The station uses electricity via a renewable energy contract and water to generate hydrogen on-site with no need for deliveries.

The new HRS is the first of two stations in the UK to be deployed as part of the pan European H2ME2 project, which was funded by the European Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCHJU) and the Office of Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV). A further station to be deployed by ITM Power under H2ME1 will be located at Gatwick Airport and will be opened before the end of this year. . . .



Toyota, JR East to partner on hydrogen-based mobility; automotive and rail
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/toyota-jr-east-to-partner-on-hydrogen-based-mobility-automotive-and-rail.html

Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) and East Japan Railway Company (JR East) have signed a basic agreement for a comprehensive business partnership centered on a hydrogen-based mobility partnership between railways and automobiles.

The agreement is rooted in Toyota and JR East’s desire to link railways and automobiles (two key means of land transport), fuse management resources, and accelerate the shift toward a low-carbon society by promoting initiatives that make use of hydrogen. . . .

The two companies wish to combine their respective strengths, and are presently engaged in detailed discussions centered on a wide range of fields surrounding hydrogen use. These include: establishing hydrogen stations on land owned by JR East, introducing FCEVs and FC Buses as a means of local transport, and applying FC technologies in railway carriages.

Toyota and JR East are also keen to ensure any tie-up between the two companies will lead to initiatives that are fully integrated into local communities. To this end, the two companies intend to request the cooperation of local governments, businesses, residents, and other stakeholders. In this way, they aim to construct a hydrogen supply chain that contributes to both regional growth and development.



Lab results, usual caveats (even in this article itself):
Volkswagen and Stanford University develop modified ALD process to increase Pt/C fuel cell catalyst efficiency, improve durability
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180927-pald.html

. . . In the new process developed by Volkswagen and Stanford, platinum atoms are specifically placed on a carbon surface using a modified atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique in order to produce extremely thin particles. This can reduce the amount of platinum currently required to a fraction of the usual amount. . . .

The researchers reported that the passivation-gas-incorporated ALD (PALD) technique enabled the direct deposition of thinner Pt nanoparticles onto carbon-based catalyst supports, which enabled greater Pt utilization due to a more suitable nanoparticle morphology. A combination of effects allowed for the PALD Pt/C catalysts to achieve a twofold increase in the mass activity for ORR compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst.

    This technology opens up enormous possibilities for cost reduction, as the amount of precious metal used is minimised. At the same time, service life and catalyst performance are increased. In addition to the fuel cell, atomic layer deposition also offers a whole range of other applications requiring high-performance materials, such as next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

    —Friedrich Prinz, the Finmeccanica Professor in the School of Engineering at Stanford University, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Senior Fellow at the Precourt Institute for Energy. . . .

The task of the researchers is now to transfer the results obtained in the laboratory to industrial large-scale production.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Mon Oct 01, 2018 5:11 pm

All via GCC:
Lloyd’s Register, H2-Industries working on safety standards for fuel-cell-electric ships with LOHC technology
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/10/20181001-lr.html

H2-Industries and Lloyd’s Register (LR) are working together on developing safety standards for all-electric vessels powered by emission-free Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) technology.

The project is seeking to obtain Approval in Principle for the use of LOHC technology on ships. This covers the refueling of ships with LOHC, the storage of the energy carrier on board as well as the process of power generation onboard of the vessel.

LOHC technology enables the safe and efficient storage of hydrogen through molecular binding; LOHC is efficient, non-explosive and has low flammability. LOHC technology from H2-Industries enables the safe storage of hydrogen as well as the safe and efficient operation of fuel cells onboard. It converts the hydrogen released from the LOHC into electricity, which is then used on the vessel for propulsion and onboard power.

H2-Industries’ LOHC technology is also compatible with existing infrastructure. The oily substance can be stored and transported in exactly the same way that diesel is transported. With the LOHC system, energy can not only be fueled in the same way as diesel, but the substance can also be charged with hydrogen as often as required.

LR, Siemens, VSY working on application of fuel cell technology for 65m yacht. LR, Viareggio Super Yachts (VSY) and Siemens have signed an agreement to develop a project for the application of hydrogen fuel cell technology on a special version of the new VSY 65m WATERECHO project by Espen Øino. . . .

The main purpose of the new project is to assess the specific safety and technical requirements for feeding the stern electric engine (used for maneuvering or as auxiliary propulsor—-standard in all VSY yachts) in a completely sustainable mode.

As per the agreement, VSY will carry out the technical and commercial feasibility of the employment of hydrogen fuel cells and their installation onboard. Siemens will provide their know-how, the technical solutions already developed or to be developed, and LR will carry out a preliminary assessment for certification purposes. . . .



UK funds 100MW Power-to-Gas energy storage project; Project Centurion
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180930-centurion.html

ITM Power announced funding from Innovate UK for a feasibility study to deploy a 100MW Power-to-Gas (P2G) energy storage project, “Project Centurion” at Runcorn, Cheshire, UK. This project explores the electrolytic production, pipeline transmission, salt cavern storage and gas grid injection of green hydrogen at an industrial scale. The feasibility study will explore the system design and costs and will assess the business case for deployment. . . .

Project partners ITM Power, INOVYN, Storengy, Cadent and Element Energy wish to explore the feasibility of siting a 100MW Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyzer at the INOVYN Runcorn Site, which already produces hydrogen (used mainly on-site) as a co-product of the chlor-alkali process.

This site has an existing 420MW supergrid connection, power electronics and planning consent for industrial scale hydrogen production. The transport of hydrogen by pipeline to salt caverns near Lostock, where it can be stored pure or blended with natural gas, will be explored, along with the feasibility of injection into the local gas network. Other potential demands for the hydrogen will be assessed, including industrial and transport use which will support existing studies in the area, particularly Cadent’s HyNet NW.

The feasibility study is being supported by Innovate UK and the partners. It’s objectives are: to produce a 100MW system design with costs significantly below current targets; to build the consensus on P2G systems as an important part of a decarbonized energy system; and to produce the evidence base for raising financing for the project. The feasibility study outputs will be a 100MW system design, a business case and delivery plan for Project Centurion with a clear description of the next steps, and a dissemination campaign to increase understanding of, and interest in, P2G systems at a large scale.

Once built, Project Centurion will mark the first-time a P2G system injects hydrogen into the public gas network in the UK at scale. It will be the first time the electricity and gas system would be coupled in the UK to provide energy storage for excess electricity; and it will be the largest water to hydrogen electrolyzer system in the world (based on current deployments).

Existing projects such as HyDeploy make use of a private, isolated gas network, which is not possible at this scale. Project Centurion will build upon the work done in HyDeploy and the proposed HyDeploy 2 which if funded by Ofgem will develop the evidence base for transporting blended hydrogen through trials on two public gas networks on the North West and North East of England. The project will also develop a full deployment plan for hydrogen blending on the gas network.



Nel ASA awarded Australia’s first power-to-gas (solar-to-hydrogen) project
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/09/20180928-nel.html

Nel Hydrogen Electrolysers . . . has received a purchase order for the first Power-to-Gas (P2G) project in Australia from the ATCO Group that will use a Proton PEM electrolyser.

ATCO is developing a Clean Energy Innovation Hub (CEIH) based at the company’s Jandakot Operations facility in Western Australia. The CEIH incorporates the production, storage and use of hydrogen, as well as the commercial application of clean energy in micro-grid systems.

The CEIH will produce green hydrogen via electrolysis and inject the hydrogen into the micro-grid system at the Jandakot facility. Some of the experience gained from this project include optimizing hydrogen storage solutions, blending hydrogen with natural gas and using hydrogen as a direct fuel.

ATCO’s CEIH project is supported by the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). ARENA is working to accelerate Australia’s shift to an affordable and reliable renewable energy future, by funding projects and sharing knowledge that drive innovation and commercialization of renewable energy technologies.

The project is expected to be fully operational during 2019. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Tue Oct 02, 2018 5:31 pm

Via GCC:
Singapore’s HES unveils plans for regional hydrogen-electric passenger aircraft: Element One
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/10/20181002-hes.html

. . . Element One is powered by HES’s Aeropak—a combination of its extremely lightweight fuel cells with high energy density hydrogen energy storage, allowing flight duration extensions by several orders of magnitude compared to lithium batteries.

Element One is designed to fly 4 passengers for 500 km to 5000 km (311 miles to 3100 miles ) depending on whether hydrogen is stored in gaseous or liquid form. This performance is several orders of magnitude better than any battery-electric aircraft attempt so far, opening new aerial routes between smaller towns and rural areas using an existing and dense network of small-scale airports and aerodromes. . . .

Refueling Element One will take no more than 10 minutes using an automated nacelle swap system that applies AGVs (automated guided vehicles) and automated warehouse operations such as those used by Amazon and Alibaba.

Last week, HES announced its plans to begin associating on-site hydrogen generation with fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft across a network of hydrogen-ready airports, in preparation for larger-scale electric aircraft such as Element One. HES is now in discussion with industrial-scale hydrogen producers to explore energy-efficient refueling systems using renewable solar or wind energy produced locally.

In an effort to explore new business models that help position Element One into new travel segments, HES has aligned its zero-carbon aviation roadmap with Wingly, a French startup that offers flight sharing services for decentralized and regional air travel. . . .

Targeting a first flying prototype before 2025, HES is in the process of building a technical and commercial consortium involving both the aviation and hydrogen eco-systems.

HES’ parent company H3 Dynamics Holdings is backed by Japan’s SPARX representing Toyota Mirai Creation Fund, ACA Partners, and Capital Management Group.

They certainly get points for setting their sights high, but this does seem to be trying to do far too many things at once. The swappable nacelles for refueling and their infrastructure, in particular, seem an unneeded step. The A/C itself plus basic H2 refueling services would seem to be a tough enough task. Assuming sustainable liquid bio-fuels can only be produced in amounts sufficient to handle long-range aviation, we'll need H2 FC A/C to provide ZEV regional air transport beyond the ranges that BE A/C can handle, in areas where high-speed rail isn't economic. Regional air transport has always seemed to be the most likely niche for FC A/C, aside from longer-range drones.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 9390
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Sat Oct 06, 2018 2:37 pm

Via GCC:
Toyota Industries to adopt Toshiba’s hydrogen supply system; green hydrogen for fuel-cell forklifts
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/10/20181005-toyotaindustries.html

. . . Toyota Industries will adopt a Toshiba ESS facility to produce and supply hydrogen made from renewable energy for fuel-cell forklifts used at the Takahama plant of Toyota Industries in Aichi Prefecture.

The system will control the amounts of production and compression of hydrogen using Toshiba ESS’ hydrogen energy management system, which includes a hydrogen demand prediction function that forecasts supply requirements for each fuel-cell forklift, allowing efficient use of energy.

Since November 2016, Toyota Industries has already supplied almost 80 hydrogen forklifts trucks to factories and airports where it is difficult to have enough time for battery-powered units to charge for long run times. Fuel-cell forklifts can be filled-up in as quickly as three minutes. Six trucks of them are operating at its Takahama Plant and Toyota Industries is planning to increase them to 12 trucks during FY 2018.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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