edatoakrun
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Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in stationary applications

Wed Jun 24, 2015 7:09 pm

http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/63332.pdf

Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries
J. Neubauer, K. Smith, E. Wood, and A. Pesaran

Executive Summary
Market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which could significantly decrease the nation’s dependence on foreign oil and emissions of greenhouse gases, is presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems, which could increase the reliability, efficiency, and cleanliness of the grid, is similarly inhibited by the cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies—in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then once deemed appropriate is redeployed into a secondary market—could help address both issues. By extracting additional services and revenue from the battery in a post-vehicle application, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased, and the cost of the battery can be reduced to both the primary and secondary users.
Recognizing this potential, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Vehicle Technologies Office has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to investigate the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of modern lithium-ion PEV batteries. The resultant research identified and answered three high-level questions critical to understanding the viability of B2U:

1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be?
A detailed analysis was conducted of battery degradation in automotive service, of the economics of battery replacement in automotive service, and of battery degradation in a second use. It was found that there is little to no economic incentive to replace a PEV battery prior to the end of the original vehicle’s service life (approximately 15 years), at which point the battery will have approximately 70% of its initial capacity remaining. The subsequent second use service life is highly sensitive to the second life duty cycle, climate, battery thermal management, and other factors, but could potentially exceed 10 years under favorable conditions.

2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost?
Application of a battery repurposer business model found that repurposing facilities can likely be dedicated to batteries from a single model of PEV, avoiding the complexities of repurposing heterogeneous batteries, and efficiently operate on a regional scale, avoiding the added costs of nationwide battery collection. Technician labor is a major cost element of repurposing operations that must be minimized. As such, it is economically impractical to replace faulty cells within modules, and thus minimizing purchases of modules containing faulty cells is critical. Use of vehicle diagnostics data to support used battery purchases is therefore of great value to repurposers. When such data is available, repurposing costs can be as low as $20/kWh-nameplate.

3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value?
Both economic (cost of repurposed batteries, value of service provided) and market size (supply of repurposed batteries, demand for service) factors were addressed to identify suitable applications. It was found that the potential supply of second use batteries can overwhelm the depth of many markets for second use batteries (often by an order of magnitude or more). The most promising application identified for second use batteries is to replace grid-connected combustion turbine peaker plants and provide peak-shaving services. In comparison to automotive service, use in this application will entail relatively benign duty cycles, generally much less than one cycle per day with discharge durations of greater than one hour. Under these conditions, it is anticipated that second use battery lifetimes will be on the order of 10 years. While the value to the original automotive battery owner is restricted primarily to the elimination of end of service costs (battery extraction, disposal, recycling, etc.), the value to the broader community could be significant: decreased cost of peaker plant operation on the order of 10% to 20%, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption, and deferral of battery recycling...
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edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
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Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in stationary applications.

Sun Jul 19, 2015 12:01 pm

You can also repurpose LEAF batteries in mobile applications, where energy density is not as high priority as it is in a BEV, such as this mobile charging service:
Driving an electric car has a lot of upsides: A quiet, smooth ride. Tons of torque for great acceleration. No gas to buy, access to the HOV lane, and that warm, fuzzy feeling you get knowing you aren’t burning fossil fuels.

But charging the damn thing sure can be a pain. If you want to plug in anywhere but your garage, you’ve got to there’s a charger wherever you’re going, and hope someone isn’t using it when you need to (fat chance).

That just got a whole lot easier for people who drive their Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S, or Fiat 500e to work at LinkedIn every day. The company is providing EV chargers on wheels, an interesting idea that eliminates two things that make charging such a hassle.

The first is infrastructure...

The second is the fact chargers would be a whole lot more useful if the cars using them moved on as soon as they were charged...

The Mobi Charger solves both problems. The gadget, made by a Bay Area startup called Freewire, resembles a bulked-up ice cream cart packing 48 kWh of juice instead of Fudgsicles. It can charge a car in as little as 30 minutes, and works with any plug that isn’t a Tesla plug. (Sorry, Model S drivers. Blame Elon for insisting on a proprietary plug.) And bringing the eco-thing full circle, the Mobi cart uses batteries pulled from old electric cars—Freewire’s getting them from Nissan for the moment...

http://www.wired.com/2015/07/rolling-ba ... -problems/

This concept will be far more cost effective, IMO, when the battery cart can drive and plug-into the parked BEV by itself, without the cost of a human attendant.

Manufacturer's site:

http://www.freewiretech.com/mobi-charger/
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edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
Delivery Date: 15 May 2011
Leaf Number: 2184
Location: Shasta County, North California

Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Tue Mar 01, 2016 12:50 pm

The future is almost here.

Someday, everyone will realize the obvious.

That whenever your BEV is parked, you want it connected to a two-way charge/discharge device, so you can continue to put your pack to good use.

Nissan’s new office in France to house largest grid-integrated energy hub, powered by Nissan electric vehicle technology
•100 vehicle-to-grid chargers to form largest ever grid-integrated EV system
•64 Nissan LEAF batteries to power stationary energy storage system
•Nissan explores rolling out technologies at other European sites



GENEVA (Switzerland) 1st March 2016: Nissan today announced that its new regional office in France will house the largest grid-integrated electric vehicle (EV) system and second life battery storage unit ever installed in a building, anywhere in the world.

As the pioneers of the Nissan LEAF, the world’s best-selling 100% electric car, today’s announcement is representative of Nissan’s commitment to pushing its expertise in EV and battery production to the next level. The company is developing an ecosystem of technologies that work seamlessly together to create sustainable and efficient solutions for the future.

It also marks an important step in the company’s plans to make its Intelligent Mobility vision a reality in Europe. The integration of this technology is a clear demonstration of how cars in the future can be connected to social infrastructure such as road, information and electric power networks, and brings to life the vision’s third pillar – Intelligent Integration.

The new building will feature 100 vehicle-to-grid chargers, from Nissan’s partner ENEL, allowing Nissan’s range of EVs to plug in and draw down energy from the grid at off-peak periods with the ability to “sell back” the stored energy to the grid. It will also feature a 1 MWh energy storage system, from Nissan’s partner EATON, the battery storage experts, powered by 64 Nissan LEAF second life EV batteries combined with solar energy generation...

http://newsroom.nissan-europe.com/EU/en ... aid=143213

I want the home V to G system (in my case, V to microgrid, so I can cut the wire connecting my home to PG&E) shown in this video at ~ 50 seconds:

Nissan: introducing the Fuel Station of the Future

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLs7YOj ... e=youtu.be
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edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
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Leaf Number: 2184
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Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Tue May 10, 2016 8:52 am

Nissan PR Europe announces progress with programs to provide grid accessibility to BEV packs, both during their installed phase, and after they are replaced, as I mentioned in my previous post.

In fact, if I am able to access the pack in my 2011 using a V2G device, the chance I will ever replace MY 2011's OE pack would seem to be very slight.

Due to the effects of subsidies on new BEV sales in reducing price paid for both new and used BEVs, you cant buy kWh much cheaper than with a used BEV, and I'd probally just keep my 2011 LEAF and use it primarily as my home kWh storage device after I replace it as my daily driver, rather than buying a dedicated home energy storage device from Nissan or anyone else.

="edatoakrun"
The future is almost here.

Someday, everyone will realize the obvious.

That whenever your BEV is parked, you want it connected to a two-way charge/discharge device, so you can continue to put your pack to good use.

Nissan and Enel launch groundbreaking vehicle-to-grid project in the UK
•First ever vehicle-to-grid (V2G) trial in the UK
•Nissan electric vehicles become mobile energy hubs supplying the grid
•Trial comprises of 100 V2G units
•Nissan EV owners can sell stored energy in their vehicles back to the grid for a profit

London, UK – May 10th,2016 – Automotive industry leader Nissan and multinational power company Enel today confirmed plans to launch a major vehicle-to-grid (V2G) trial – the first ever carried out in the UK. The trial will work by installing and connecting one hundred V2G units at locations agreed by private and fleet owners of the Nissan LEAF and e-NV200 electric van. By giving Nissan electric vehicle owners the ability to plug their vehicles into the V2G system, owners will have the flexibility and power to sell stored energy from their vehicle battery back to the National Grid. This announcement follows the signing of the Nissan-Enel V2G partnership agreement in Paris in December 2015 during the 21st UN Conference on Climate Change (COP21) and the subsequent kick-off, in January 2016, of the installation of 40 V2G units in Denmark.

Today’s announcement heralds an exciting era for energy management in the UK. Not only will Nissan electric vehicle owners be able to play an active role in grid stability, providing an alternate source of income, but it will revolutionise how energy is supplied to the grid. Once scaled up, the V2G technology can become a game-changer for owners of Nissan EV in the UK as they become fully fledged and active participants in the UK energy market...

http://newsroom.nissan-europe.com/EU/en ... aid=145211

="edatoakrun"
I want the home V to G system (in my case, V to microgrid, so I can cut the wire connecting my home to PG&E) ...



Nissan and Eaton make home energy storage reliable and affordable to everyone with ‘xStorage’


•Designed to be the most reliable and affordable energy storage system in the market today
•Helps consumers avoid expensive energy tariff periods
•Developed in collaboration with Eaton and designed in the UK at Nissan Design Europe in London
•Sales expected to exceed 100,000 xStorage units within the next five years

LONDON (UK) 10th May 2016: Automotive leader Nissan and power management leader Eaton, have joined forces to unveil a new residential energy storage unit – designed to be the most affordable in the market today. Available to pre-order from September 2016, the ‘xStorage’ solution will give consumers the power to control how and when they use energy in their own homes.

Connected to residential power supply or renewable energy sources such as solar panels, the unit can save customers money on their utility bills by charging up when renewable energy is available or energy is cheaper (e.g. during the night) and releasing that stored energy when demand and costs are high. If a home is equipped with solar technology, this means that consumers can power their homes using clean energy stored in their xStorage system, and be rewarded financially for doing so by avoiding expensive daytime energy tariffs.

The home energy storage system also provides the ultimate back-up solution to consumers, ensuring that the lights never go out – ideal at a time when energy grids are coming under enormous strain. Moreover, customers can also generate additional revenues by selling stored energy back to the grid when demand and costs are high...

Providing a sustainable ‘second life’ for Nissan’s electric vehicle (EV) batteries after their first life in cars is over, the new unit is powered by twelve Nissan EV battery modules and has the potential to revolutionise the way people manage energy usage in their own home, providing added flexibility and multiple cost savings....

http://newsroom.nissan-europe.com/EU/en ... aid=145212

This FT report summarizes both releases:

http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/7e75b7d2 ... z48GUKZn91
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Marktm
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Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Sat Jun 04, 2016 11:23 am

Another article on Nissan's V2G initiative (at least I think this one has not been referenced). Maybe Nissan is re-focusing on V2G although I'm more interested in Vehicle to home in off-grid mode. The protocol for bi-directional CHAdeMO would be a real boon - seems this V2G initiative must codify that?

http://electrek.co/2016/05/11/nissan-ve ... d-enel-uk/
2012 Leaf SL; 36,000 miles. Battery replaced November 1st, 2016.
Rural cabin with 6750 watts Grid tied PV. Off-grid solar Leaf charging capable (level II).

edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
Delivery Date: 15 May 2011
Leaf Number: 2184
Location: Shasta County, North California

Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Wed Jun 22, 2016 12:27 am

BMW's approach is to take the entire i-3 pack, and nails it to your wall...

Looks like the Active Thermal Management system is dropped, for this application?

Battery storage system electrified by BMW i announced at EVS29 in Montreal.

Montreal, Quebec June 21, 2016. … BMW i, a leader in innovative electromobility since 2011, announced a stationary energy storage system solution integrating its BMW i3 vehicle battery at the Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition 29, making it the first automotive manufacturer to utilize a complete automotive high-voltage battery for energy storage. The battery storage system electrified by BMW i, enables customers to more fully realize their commitment to sustainability – and to take the next step towards energy independence. With this system, which integrates seamlessly with charging stations and solar panels, customers can offset peak energy costs and also enjoy the added security of an available backup energy supply during power outages...

https://www.press.bmwgroup.com/usa/arti ... n-montreal
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edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
Delivery Date: 15 May 2011
Leaf Number: 2184
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Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Wed Jun 22, 2016 12:44 am

The future is almost here.

Someday, everyone will realize the obvious.

That whenever your BEV is parked, you want it connected to a two-way charge/discharge device, so you can continue to put your pack to good use...

Unfortunately, TSLA continues to display remarkable short-sightedness on this subject.

Watch from ~2:46 into the video.

At ~2:49 Musk spreads the FUD on thick, citing "electrocution risk" from V2G...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DvVlNkL8f_o
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edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
Delivery Date: 15 May 2011
Leaf Number: 2184
Location: Shasta County, North California

Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Thu Jun 30, 2016 12:03 pm

Tesla CTO JB Straubel gives his reasoning for why Tesla supports neither repurposing or V to G for BEV batteries, beginning at ~23:20 in this video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgcozueYXMU

IMO, Staubel's explanations are not convincing, but I believe Tesla has in fact, probably eliminated both possibilities, with its own business plan.

Using cheap commodity cells that required thermal management to reduce fire risk allowed TSLA to assemble high kWh BEV packs at relatively low price per kWh, but it is unlikely anyone will ever disassemble thousands of batteries in a pack for repurposing, or that anyone will want to hang an entire TSLA pack (requiring an external cooling system?) on their garage wall, as BMW seems to be contemplating with used i-3 packs.

And Tesla's "free forever" DC charging means those costs are rolled into their BEVs' initial sales prices, which essentially rules out Model S and X owners from being allowed to use their packs for V to G, to micro-grid, or to home.

Tesla forum thread discussing this subject:

https://teslamotorsclub.com/tmc/threads ... sla.72249/
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Marktm
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Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Thu Jun 30, 2016 6:00 pm

edatoakrun wrote:Due to the effects of subsidies on new BEV sales in reducing price paid for both new and used BEVs, you cant buy kWh much cheaper than with a used BEV, and I'd probally just keep my 2011 LEAF and use it primarily as my home kWh storage device after I replace it as my daily driver, rather than buying a dedicated home energy storage device from Nissan or anyone else.


edatoakrun;

Have you made any progress in the goal of using the Leaf as home energy storage?

I purchased a 2012 Leaf primarily for the KWH capacity with the eventual goal of off-grid emergency usage. The price I paid was actually cheaper than an equivalent quality LiFePO4 system with a high quality BMS - plus a great vehicle that I'm now using more than my ICE vehicle. My primary goal is to minimize any modifications to the Leaf so that it can be driven off after any such emergency.

The "solar" level II charging off-grid is not too much of a challenge - but highly inefficient. I don't believe there is a high voltage (~400 VDC) MPPT charge controller made commercially yet - which will eventually be needed for reasonable efficiency. The grid tied installs have proven safety/reliability of up to 600 VDC panel voltages - certainly enough for "direct" DC charging. It seems the real challenge is how to retrieve the energy (for off-grid use - not grid tied load leveling service). My "wish list" is to do this with the battery in-situ, however this means dealing with the full 400 VDC pack. I do have a commercial UPS in mind that could "fit the bill" and in the process of confirming yea or nay. If not, I'm back to the drawing board. Some of the references you have diligently passed along (thanks) allude to home use - but I'm not sure if it is truly off-grid. If so, there may be commercially available high voltage (DC) off-grid or hybrid inverters soon?

So, back to the original question of - any progress?
2012 Leaf SL; 36,000 miles. Battery replaced November 1st, 2016.
Rural cabin with 6750 watts Grid tied PV. Off-grid solar Leaf charging capable (level II).

edatoakrun
Posts: 4717
Joined: Thu Nov 11, 2010 9:33 am
Delivery Date: 15 May 2011
Leaf Number: 2184
Location: Shasta County, North California

Re: Repurposing of LEAF batteries in secondary non-BEV applications.

Wed Nov 30, 2016 4:45 pm

Nissan has begun taking pre-orders in Europe for xStorage Home packs.

Notice that Nissan wants ~ $170 a kWh for the extra 2.5 kWh of used LEAF batteries, when you upgrade to 6 kWh.

And Nissan wants to pay me just over $50 a kWh to trade in MY OE ($1,000 for what I estimate is ~19 total kWh capacity remaining after ~50 k miles and ~6.5 years of use) LEAF pack?

I think I'll pass, for now...

Nissan and Eaton broaden xStorage residential energy storage portfolio as pre-orders commence in Europe

...Barcelona (Nov. 30th, 2016) – Nissan and power management leader Eaton are broadening their portfolio of xStorage Home residential energy storage solutions by introducing a range of six product configurations, giving consumers greater choice to meet their energy needs. This announcement comes as pre-orders of begin today in the United Kingdom, Norway and Germany with other European markets to follow in the coming months.

The xStorage Home system can draw energy from the sun or from the grid, making energy consumption more affordable and encouraging home-owners to make a more sustainable choice. The cutting-edge technology in the xStorage Home system is also fit for the future, and can enable customers to sell energy back to the grid – an opportunity that is expected to be offered by energy companies in the future.

The system gives consumers greater control over how and when they use energy in their own homes enabling them to avoid expensive tariff periods. The expanded range will offer consumers greater choice over power capacity and price as well as units. Consumers can opt to purchase units powered by either second life batteries or new batteries.

xStorage Home units – which provide a sustainable second life for Nissan’s electric vehicle (EV) batteries after their first life in cars is over – will be priced competitively starting at €3,500 (excluding VAT and installation costs) for a power capacity of 3.5kW rising to just €3,900 for 6kW. Units powered by new Nissan batteries will start from €5,000 rising to €5,580 for the highest capacity and will come with an extended warranty period of ten years...

http://newsroom.nissan-europe.com/eu/en ... nce-in-eur

Order Site:

WHAT IS THE XSTORAGE SOLUTION?
xStorage is a portfolio of energy storage solutions that give you access to safe, reliable and sustainable energy. The home storage unit gives Nissan's electric vehicle batteries a 'second life'. By partnering with Eaton, we provide scalable energy storage systems fit for your homes and your business, allowing all of us to benefit from the transition towards a more sustainable society.


https://www.nissan.co.uk/experience-nis ... issan.html


Marktm wrote:
edatoakrun wrote:Due to the effects of subsidies on new BEV sales in reducing price paid for both new and used BEVs, you cant buy kWh much cheaper than with a used BEV, and I'd probally just keep my 2011 LEAF and use it primarily as my home kWh storage device after I replace it as my daily driver, rather than buying a dedicated home energy storage device from Nissan or anyone else.


edatoakrun;

Have you made any progress in the goal of using the Leaf as home energy storage? ...

No, I'm still driving it.
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