Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

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WetEV said:
GRA said:
Mercedes-Benz cites the project as a prime example of the symbiosis of battery and fuel-cell technology and a key step on the road to CO2 neutrality. . . .


It’s the silence that grabs you. Under hard acceleration, not even a distant whine can be heard from the electric motor driving the front wheels of the new Rolls-Royce Spectre. We’re approaching 80mph and there’s a merest sensation of motion from somewhere beneath us, and a faint whoosh from somewhere around the A-pillar. It’s almost unnerving.

Jörg Wunder, the engineer leading the project and the man driving us around the Miramas test track in southern France, is pleased, but not satisfied. He acknowledges the wind rush: “It’s a seal in the door frame,” he says. “We have improvements already identified, and we’re going to roll them into the next series of upgrades.”

More than 105 kWh battery.

Price? If you need to ask...

Was that Rolls Royce supposed to be an FCEV? There were no mentions of any powertrain-related other than the battery.
Oils4AsphaultOnly said:
Was that Rolls Royce supposed to be an FCEV? There were no mentions of any powertrain-related other than the battery.

I went looking for Rolls-Royce. All of the references I found were in this topic. So I put the article here.

Yes, it's a BEV. Of course, it's a Rolls-Royce, designed to appeal to a higher end buyer. Not some hydrogen subsidy sow.
BMW and Toyota plan to release jointly-built fuel cell cars in 2025
Been awhile since I had the time to read and post in this topic, but since I'm laid up today here's some H2/FCEV news, all via GCC:

EC approves up to Euro 5.2B of public support for second IPCEI in the hydrogen value chain


The European Commission approved, under EU State aid rules, a second Important Project of Common European Interest (IPCEI) to support research and innovation, first industrial deployment and construction of relevant infrastructure in the hydrogen value chain.

The project, called “IPCEI Hy2Use” was jointly prepared and notified by thirteen Member States: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.

The Member States will provide up to Euro 5.2 billion in public funding, which is expected to unlock additional Euro 7 billion in private investments. As part of this IPCEI, 29 companies with activities in one or more Member States, including small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and start-ups, will participate in 35 projects.

IPCEI Hy2Use will cover a wide part of the hydrogen value chain by supporting:

the construction of hydrogen-related infrastructure, notably large-scale electrolyzers and transport infrastructure, for the production, storage and transport of renewable and low-carbon hydrogen; and

the development of innovative and more sustainable technologies for the integration of hydrogen into the industrial processes of multiple sectors, especially those that are more challenging to decarbonize, such as steel, cement and glass.

The IPCEI is expected to boost the supply of renewable and low-carbon hydrogen, thereby reducing dependency on the supply of natural gas.

Several projects are expected to be implemented in the near future, with various large-scale electrolyzers expected to be operational by 2024-2026 and many of the innovative technologies deployed by 2026-2027. The completion of the overall project is planned for 2036, with timelines varying in function of the project and the companies involved. . . .

DOE opens $7B funding opportunity for regional clean hydrogen hubs: H2Hubs


. . . Matching the scale-up of clean hydrogen production to a growing regional demand is a key pathway to achieving large-scale, commercially viable hydrogen ecosystems. H2Hubs is intended to enable this pathway by demonstrating low-carbon intensity and economically viable hydrogen-based energy ecosystems that can replace existing carbon-intensive processes.

Each H2Hub will include multiple partners that will bring together diverse hydrogen technologies to produce and utilize large amounts of hydrogen in different ways. These clean hydrogen demonstrations will balance hydrogen supply and demand, connective infrastructure, and a plan for long-term financial viability. The H2Hubs will also include substantial engagement of local and regional stakeholders, as well as Tribes, to ensure that they generate local, regional, and national benefits.

DOE has defined a four-phase structure for the H2Hubs. Phase 1 will encompass initial planning and analysis activities to ensure that the overall H2Hub concept is technologically and financially viable, with input from relevant local stakeholders.

Phase 2 will finalize engineering designs and business development, site access, labor agreements, permitting, offtake agreements, and community engagement activities necessary to begin installation, integration, and construction activities in Phase 3.

Phase 4 will ramp-up the H2Hub to full operations including data collection to analyze the H2Hub’s operations, performance, and financial viability. . . .

For this initial funding opportunity launch, DOE is aiming to select six to ten hubs for a combined total of up to $7 billion in federal funding. Concept papers are due by 7 November 2022, and full applications are due by 7 April 2023. Additional funding opportunities may follow to accelerate and expand the network of clean hydrogen projects.

As part of the Department’s commitment to accelerating the national deployment of clean hydrogen fuel, DOE also released a draft of the National Clean Hydrogen Strategy and Roadmap for public feedback. . . .

DOE releases draft guidance for Clean Hydrogen Production Standard (CHPS)


The US Department of Energy (DOE) released draft guidance for a Clean Hydrogen Production Standard (CHPS), developed to meet the requirements of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law (BIL), Section 40315.

The CHPS is not a regulatory standard, and DOE may not necessarily require future funded activities to achieve the standard. However, hydrogen hubs funded in support of the BIL (earlier post) will be required to “demonstrably aid achievement” of the CHPS by mitigating emissions across the supply chain to the greatest extent possible (e.g., by employing high rates of carbon capture, using low-carbon electricity, or mitigating upstream methane emissions).

Future DOE funding opportunity announcements will further describe merit review criteria that will be used in selection of successful projects subject to the CHPS. . . .

Had to leave out some of the details, as they were causing SQL errors.

Toyota, Kenworth tout fuel cell electric truck capabilities with completion of truck operations for ZANZEFF


Toyota Motor North America and Kenworth Truck Company said they have proven the capabilities of their jointly designed heavy-duty, Class 8 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) as a potential zero-emissions replacement of diesel-powered trucks with the completion of their operations in the Zero- and Near-Zero Emissions Freight Facilities (ZANZEFF) “Shore to Store” project at the Port of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles basin and the Inland Empire.

The primary goal for Toyota and Kenworth’s participation in the project was to match nearly the performance of diesel-powered drayage trucks while eliminating emissions to provide a sustainable solution in heavy-duty transportation. The baseline for the Toyota-Kenworth T680 FCEV truck—codenamed “Ocean”—was a 2017 diesel engine operating about 200 miles a day.

The T680 FCEV has a range of about 300+ miles when fully loaded to 82,000 lbs. (GCWR), and with no downtime between shifts for charging and the short 15- to 20-minute fill time, the FCEVs could run multiple shifts a day and cover up to 400 to 500 miles.

Kenworth designed and built the Class 8 T680 FCEVs, while Toyota designed and built the powertrain’s fuel cell electric power system powered by hydrogen. The Ocean trucks reduced Greenhouse Gases (GHG) by 74.66 metric tons of CO2 per truck annually compared to the baseline diesel engine.

The success of the 10 trucks in serving real-world customers was a result of close collaboration among diverse project members, including Kenworth and Toyota, The Port of Los Angeles as the project lead, Shell for hydrogen fuel infrastructure and a grant from the California Air Resource Board (CARB).

The program paves the way for further development and commercial opportunities for hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric transportation in California and beyond.

Though officially concluding their duties in the ZANZEFF “Shore to Store” project on 5 August 2022, some of the trucks will remain in use as demonstration or working models, including one that will continue supporting Toyota operations in the lower LA Basin.

Although the overall ZANZEFF project is anticipated to conclude later this year, the recently concluded “Shore to Store” project funded under ZANZEFF was proposed with support from Toyota, Kenworth and Shell and funded with a $41-million grant awarded by CARB.

“Shore to Store” provided one of the largest real-world, proof-of-concept test cases to show the practical application of hydrogen-powered fuel cell technology at scale in a framework for freight facilities to structure operations for future goods movement from the “Shore to the Store” in the world. . . .

Siemens Mobility orders 14 Ballard 200 kW fuel cell modules for 7 trains; LOI for up 200 additional modules


Ballard Power Systems announced an order for 14 x 200 kW fuel cell modules from Siemens Mobility GmbH, a leading supplier in the development of alternative drives, to power a fleet of seven Mireo Plus H passenger trains. Delivery of the 14 fuel cell modules is expected to start in 2023 with the fleet planned to be in service in Berlin-Brandenburg region in late 2024.

In addition to the initial order of 14 fuel cell modules, Siemens Mobility also signed a letter of intent with Ballard for the supply of 200 fuel cell modules totaling 40 MW over the next six years, including a firm commitment on 100 of the fuel cell modules totaling 20MW. The modules will be used for Siemen’s Mireo Plus H trains.

Siemens Mobility positions the Mireo Plus H as the most suited for long-distance routes, while the battery-powered Mireo Plus B trains are the best choice for distances up to 120 km depending on the configuration. Mireo Plus H trains achieve ranges of up to 600 km as a two-part train, and from 800 to 1,000 km as a three-part train, depending on the line profile and mode of operation.

The hydrogen train is as powerful as electric multiple units. It features a high traction power of 1.7 MW for up to 1.1 m/s² acceleration and a maximum speed of up to 160 km/h.

Cummins unveils fourth-generation fuel cell at IAA


. . . Designed to meet the duty-cycle, performance and packaging requirements of medium- and heavy-duty trucks and buses, the fuel cell technology is available in 135 kW single and 270 kW dual modules.

Scania in Europe and Daimler Trucks North America have each announced collaborations with Cummins to develop and integrate these next-generation fuel cell engines into demonstrator vehicles.

The systems use fourth-generation variable pressure technology to provide higher power density, power nodes and operating temperatures for easier system integration into vehicles. They also have strong operating cycle efficiency and durability for a lower total cost of ownership.
Ballard to supply Stadler with fuel cell systems to power first hydrogen train in US


Stadler Rail AG, a leading manufacturer of rolling stock, has ordered six 100 kW FCmove-HD+ fuel cell engines from Ballard Power Systems to power the first hydrogen train in the United States. The contract to provide the hydrogen-powered FLIRT H2 train was awarded to Stadler by San Bernardino County Transportation Authority (SBCTA), with the option of additional trains in the future.

The train is expected to be in service in 2024 and will seat more than 100 passengers.

arlier this month, Stadler signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the California State Transportation Agency (CalSTA) and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) for the design and delivery of four zero emission hydrogen FLIRT trains for California. The MOU articulates the responsibilities and roles of each stakeholder and will lead to a contract which outlines the procurement of the zero emission multiple units, with the option to purchase up 25 units.

The vehicles are intended to be deployed state-wide in California and this MOU stands as an interim agreement for work to begin on California’s next big rail investment. . . .
Cemvita demonstrates “gold hydrogen” production in situ, sets up subsidiary


Cemvita Factory announced multiple developments with its Gold Hydrogen business. Cemvita defines Gold Hydrogen as the biological production of hydrogen in the subsurface through the consumption of trapped or abandoned resources. Gold Hydrogen is a novel source of carbon neutral hydrogen produced from depleted oil reservoirs that are ready for plug and abandonment, extending the life of wells that would otherwise be a significant burden.

After achieving a key milestone in microbe performance required to produce hydrogen at $1/kg in the lab, Cemvita successfully completed a field pilot program with positive results. Following successful field trial results, Cemvita has created a wholly owned subsidiary for the Gold Hydrogen business, Gold H2 LLC (GH2), and subsequently raised and closed funding into the entity, led by founding investors Chart Industries and 8090 Industries.

Cemvita scientists increased microbe performance by six and a half times the rate needed to produce hydrogen at $1/kg, a key milestone necessary to advance the program toward commercialization. The subsequent field trial was completed in the Permian basin with a partnering company, where the team successfully measured hydrogen concentrations three orders of magnitude above baseline.

Traditional methods of producing hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions (green hydrogen) include electrolysis powered by renewable sources such as wind, solar, or hydro. According to recent studies, the global green hydrogen market size was valued at US$0.3 billion in 2020. It is growing at a CAGR of 54.7% from 2021 to 2028 and is projected to reach US$9.8 billion by 2028.

Green hydrogen production, however, is energy intensive and expensive. According to a report from S&P Global Commodity Insights, the cost of electrolytic hydrogen from renewable energy spiked as high as $16.80/kg in late July 2022. Because Cemvita plans to utilize existing infrastructure for thousands of depleted oil and gas wells to produce cheap, clean, carbon free hydrogen, the technology has the potential to be transformational in the energy transition, the company says. . . .

Cemvita Factory’s mission is to reimagine heavy industries such as oil & gas and mining for the net-zero economy. This is done through the sustainable extraction of natural resources, carbon negative production of chemicals, and closed-loop renewal of waste as feedstock.

As always with startups announcing breakthroughs, consider the source applies.
BMW Group to lead €19.5M HyCET project consortium on hydrogen combustion engine trucks


The German Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport (BMDV) approved the funding application for the consortium research project HyCET (Hydrogen Combustion Engine Trucks) led by the BMW Group. The other HyCET project partners are DEUTZ AG, DHL Freight GmbH, KEYOU GmbH, TotalEnergies Marketing Deutschland GmbH and Volvo Group.

The research project aims to demonstrate the sustainability potential of trucks with hydrogen combustion engines for transport logistics. The other issue for HyCET, alongside technology development, is the required infrastructure, such as publicly accessible hydrogen filling stations.

With its shorter filling times, high payload and versatility, combined with its attractive range, hydrogen is regarded as a promising fuel for transport logistics. The use of green hydrogen produced from renewable energies could thus enable CO2-free long-distance logistics in the future. Due to the low emissions from hydrogen combustion, the trucks are also considered as zero-emission vehicles under EU regulations.

The HyCET research project will have an investment volume of €19.5 million, of which €11.3 million will be funded by the Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport (BMDV). The BMDV is also providing an additional €5.7 million euros in funding for construction of two public hydrogen filling stations mainly for heavy goods traffic.

Hydrogen technology offers us the chance to rethink mobility. In particular, the varied demands of transport logistics call for suitable responses. Hydrogen is a good energy-storage solution for climate-friendly transportation that can supplement battery-electric mobility. The HyCET project supported by us assesses the use of hydrogen combustion engine technology for the transport of heavy goods. In this way, the results obtained from real-life operation will contribute to competition between alternative drive train technologies in the field of logistics.

—Daniela Kluckert, Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister for Digital and Transport

The aim of the HyCET consortium is to develop two 18-tonne trucks and two 40-tonne trucks with hydrogen combustion engines that will be tested in regular BMW Group and DEUTZ transport logistics. Two new hydrogen filling stations including for heavy utility vehicles will be built in Leipzig and Nuremberg to facilitate daily operation of these trucks.

Not only will research into development and use of hydrogen trucks continue, but filling standards for utility vehicles and implementation of the necessary infrastructure will also be advanced. Since this is one of the first research projects in which vehicles of this class will drive in regular logistics traffic, the trucks will undergo a comprehensive technology assessment. . . .

The global multi-energy company TotalEnergies intends to operate up to 150 hydrogen filling stations directly or indirectly in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France by 2030. The two new hydrogen filling stations that will be built under the HyCET consortium in Leipzig and Nuremberg will be an integral part of this European long-distance hydrogen network.
Midwest states ally to produce hydrogen, potentially for fuel-cell semis


Seven Midwestern states have signed a memorandum of understanding to coordinate hydrogen production, potentially providing a fuel supply for fuel-cell semi trucks.

Dubbed the Midwest Hydrogen Coalition, the group of participating states includes Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin, according to a release.

Under the agreement, reported by Transport Topics, participating states will work together to identify the best ways to produce hydrogen in their region, and to define "clean hydrogen."

The coalition will also promote the Midwest as a promising area for hydrogen production specifically touting existing infrastructure for ammonia production and transport, such as pipelines. Ammonia "is an ideal hydrogen carrier," the group claims.

Among the stated uses for this hydrogen is transportation, including medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks, as well as rail, aviation, and Great Lakes shipping applications. But hydrogen commercial trucks might be closer to maturity than other forms of transportation. . . .
All GCC:

Ballard to invest $130M in MEA manufacturing facility and R&D center in Shanghai


Ballard plans to invest approximately $130 million over the next three years, which will enable annual production capacity at the new MEA production facility of approximately 13 million MEAs, which will supply approximately 20,000 engines.

Ballard expects to be able to achieve significant capacity expansion of this facility in future phases with much lower capital requirements. The facility will also include space to assemble approximately 600 engines annually to support the production and sale of Ballard engines in the rail, marine, off-road and stationary markets in China, as well as for certain export markets.

In 2021, Ballard completed its MEA manufacturing expansion in Canada, which is critical as the MEA is the core technology and limiting factor for Ballard’s global fuel cell engine production capabilities. With the new MEA capacity coming online in China, Ballard now expects its global MEA capacity to support total demand requirements through the second half of the decade. . . .

MAN Energy Solutions and Fraunhofer IST analyze options for cost-efficient hydrogen supply to Salzgitter industrial cluster


MAN Energy Solutions and the Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST) have published their analysis of the framework conditions for the future supply of green hydrogen to the Salzgitter steel site near Hannover. Commissioned by Hydrogen Campus Salzgitter, the study investigates, among other questions, the role locally produced green hydrogen could play to support German supply and its potential competitiveness with imports.

The study’s calculations show that—if used directly without further conversion—local hydrogen can be economical and even cheaper than imports from 2030 onwards. While production costs of around €4.00 per kilogram are possible in northern Germany, hydrogen imported from Tunisia, for example, would cost at least €4.70 to produce—profit margins in both cases not included. . . .

For the study, the authors modeled different supply chains for green hydrogen and compared possible import routes, such as those from Portugal, Canada, Tunisia and Australia. Although green hydrogen can be produced much more cheaply in countries with significant amounts of sunshine, it must then be converted for transport to Germany and subsequently back again for domestic use. This process step, which is fraught with costs and losses, drives the total expense above the cost price of H2 produced from wind energy in northern Germany, which can be transported by pipeline to its destination for immediate use.

Of course, we will still need imported hydrogen, and in large quantities, for two reasons. Firstly, due to the limited wind-energy potential in Germany, we can only cover a fraction of the prospective demand from domestic sources. Secondly, the local cost-advantage disappears the moment the hydrogen is not for direct use but rather as a raw material for synthetic fuels such as ammonia, methanol or methane. This will be the case in many instances, as for example in the shipbuilding or aviation industries. Accordingly, in addition to domestic production, we also need strong, international partners and import routes from the sunny or windy regions of North Africa, Patagonia, Scotland and Canada.

—Marc Grünewald

Due to its low energy-density and high volatility, pure hydrogen cannot yet be transported economically over longer distances, while ports possess neither tanker fleets nor appropriate infrastructure. Experts therefore assume that international transport will initially scale up via conversion to more conveniently transportable media, such as methanol, ammonia, etc.

Due to low technological maturity and lack of infrastructure, the study by MAN Energy Solutions and IST did not consider liquefied hydrogen or LOHCs (Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers) in its analysis. . . .

Rolls-Royce and SOWITEC cooperate on power-to-X projects


Rolls-Royce Power Systems and SOWITEC, a specialist in renewable energy projects, have agreed to cooperate with the aim of providing power-to-X projects with a total electrolysis capacity of up to 500 megawatts by 2028. The plants will use renewable energy sources to generate electrical power that will be used to produce hydrogen with mtu electrolyzers.

This green hydrogen can be used as fuel for fuel cells and hydrogen engines, to produce industrial feedstock and to produce sustainable e-fuels for marine, aviation, agriculture, mining and data center power.

Rolls-Royce brings a wide range of its own new products to the cooperation for the production and use of sustainable fuels based on green hydrogen: these include mtu electrolyzers, mtu fuel cell systems and mtu hydrogen engines, as well as experience with hydrogen ecosystems and in the simulation, design and optimization of decentralized energy supply systems.

SOWITEC, based in southern Germany, is one of the world’s leading developers of renewable energy projects and has been active for almost 30 years. With more than 4.2 gigawatts of solar and wind projects installed in South America, Europe and Asia, the Baden-Württemberg-based company has extensive experience in developing financeable turnkey renewable energy projects, from concept to implementation, including investor sourcing. . . .

European marine systems integrator orders Nuvera fuel cell system


Nuvera Fuel Cells, LLC, a provider of heavy-duty hydrogen fuel cell engines for on- and off-road mobility and other applications, has signed a memorandum of understanding with Italy-based system integrator H2Boat, which is developing a zero-emission energy solution for marine applications.

As part of the project, Nuvera will supply an E-45 fuel cell engine to H2Boat for marine type approval certification, and subsequently for integration in H2Boat’s forthcoming HP Energy Pack (P>40kW). H2Boat anticipates using Nuvera E-Series Fuel Cell Engines to expand its marine product line.

H2B launched in 2020 to introduce sustainable hydrogen technology into the marine sector starting with the pleasure boat sector. H2Boat is part of Bluenergy Revolution, a company spun out of the University of Genoa (Italy) and focused on the research and development of fuel cell, electrolyzer and metal hydride systems, with the aim to develop hydrogen technology solutions for mobile and stationary applications.

According to H2Boat, a marine vessel with an onboard hydrogen system exemplifies how passenger comfort can be achieved while minimizing environmental impact. Unlike boats propelled by internal combustion engines, a fuel cell electric boat can access marine-protected areas. . . .

ZeroAvia acquires high-temperature PEM fuel cell company HyPoint


UK-based ZeroAvia, a developer of zero-emission solutions for commercial aviation, acquired in full the high-temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack innovator HyPoint. (Earlier post.) The financial terms of the deal were not disclosed.

HyPoint’s core innovation is a new turbo air-cooling architecture. By utilizing compressed air for both cooling and oxygen supply, HyPoint reduces overall weight compared with traditional liquid cooling. Using a next-generation high temperature membrane instead of a low temperature membrane increases the efficiency of a cooling system by at least 300%.

Testing has shown that HyPoint’s fuel cell system will be able to achieve up to 2 kW kg-1 of specific power—more than triple the power-to-weight ratio of traditional (liquid-cooled) hydrogen fuel cells systems. It will also feature up to 1,500 Wh kg-1 of energy density, enabling longer-distance journeys.

The acquisition adds HyPoint’s high-temperature fuel cell technology—a promising avenue for increasing power output and energy density of aviation fuel cell powertrains—to ZeroAvia’s already leading expertise in developing the full powertrain to enable hydrogen-electric flight.

This acquisition follows a major deal with ZeroAvia’s long-term fuel cell partner PowerCell which will see the serial delivery of low-temperature PEM fuel cell stacks beginning in 2024. Together, these moves will allow ZeroAvia to progress both LTPEM and HTPEM technologies for relevant aviation applications. . . .

Volvo Penta & CMB.TECH expand partnership on dual-fuel hydrogen engines


Building on a successful collaboration, Volvo Penta and CMB.TECH are expanding their collaboration to accelerate the development of dual-fuel hydrogen-powered solutions for both on land and at sea applications. The strengthened collaboration will include joint projects ranging from pilots to small-scale industrialization.

CMB.TECH owns, operates, and designs large marine and industrial applications powered by hydrogen and ammonia—fuels that it both manufactures and supplies to its customers. Volvo Penta is a world-leading and global manufacturer of engines and complete power systems for boats, vessels, and industrial applications. The companies have worked together in pilot projects since 2017 successfully adapting Volvo Penta engines to run as a dual-fuel hydrogen and diesel solution via the conversion kit provided by CMB.TECH.

The strengthened collaboration will create synergies aimed at leveraging the competences and product offerings of both companies—establishing dual-fuel hydrogen technology as a low-carbon interim solution before suitable zero-emissions alternatives become viable. . . .

The dual-fuel solution’s main advantage is that it will reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases while at the same time provide a robust and reliable solution. And, if hydrogen is not available, the application continues to run on traditional fuel, safeguarding productivity.

The design and testing of the hydrogen-injection system will take place at CMB.TECH’s Technology and Development Center in Brentwood, UK. Here, Volvo Penta engines will be tested to optimize the hydrogen-diesel injection strategy for maximum reliability and emission savings.

The simplicity of the dual fuel technology allows a quick introduction into many applications. The potential to decarbonize with green hydrogen is huge, but many applications require a fallback scenario of traditional fuel to maintain a viable business. With the dual fuel technology, your asset is future proof, even without a full coverage of a reliable hydrogen infrastructure today.

—Roy Campe

Air Products to invest about $500M to build green hydrogen production facility in New York; 94MW hydropower already approved


Air Products plans to invest approximately $500 million to build, own and operate a 35 metric ton per day facility to produce green liquid hydrogen at a greenfield site in Massena, New York, as well as liquid hydrogen distribution and dispensing operations. The commercial operation of this facility is targeted to begin in 2026-2027.

In support of this Air Products’ project, in July 2022, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) board approved 94 MW of low-cost St. Lawrence hydroelectric power to Air Products for its significant investment and the creation of 90 jobs in New York State.

Air Products has determined that the market demand warrants the investment in the project, assuming the receipt of certain local and state incentives, as well as any benefits from the “Inflation Reduction Act” (IRA), and which are anticipated in the current project budget.

Further to this proposed facility announcement, Air Products is also investigating the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen fueling station network in the United States’ northeast region, including the ability to serve Air Products’ truck fleet. Air Products has announced plans to convert its global fleet of approximately 2,000 trucks to hydrogen fuel cell zero-emission vehicles.

The low-carbon intensity liquid hydrogen product from the facility is expected to be sold to the mobility market in New York State as well as other potential northeast industrial markets. If all the hydrogen is used for the heavy-duty truck market, future climate benefits over the project’s lifetime would include avoiding more than six million tonnes of carbon dioxide, which is equivalent to the emissions from over 600 million gallons of diesel used in heavy-duty trucks.

Demand for green hydrogen for mobility and industrial applications is expected to grow significantly in the northeast as a result of the New York-led multi-state agreement to develop a proposal to become one of the regional clean hydrogen hubs designated through the federal Clean Hydrogen Hubs Program, and New York State’s adoption of a new Advanced Clean Trucks (ACT) rule. . . .
I was trying to figure out what a "fuel cell engine" is, but I gave up and looked it up. Fuel cell engines apparently operate on the principle of "marketing," and are nothing more than fuel cells for EVs. They are essentially marketing gibberish.
You may be right - I suspect 'Fuel Cell Power Plants' doesn't slide off the tongue as easily. Alternatively, maybe using 'power plant' was considered confusing for the target customers. Call it an 'engine' and there's little doubt it's for propulsion, while 'power plant' could just be intended to power auxiliary services, like a diesel generator. We're already seeing FCs used in marine applications for the latter purpose.
SK invests in electrofuels company Infinium


SK Trading International (SKTI), a wholly owned subsidiary of SK Innovation, has closed a round of institutional funding into electrofuels developer Infinium. (Earlier post.) The investment will support acceleration of Infinium’s commercial developments globally.

Infinium Electrofuels technology converts carbon dioxide waste and renewable power through its proprietary process to create hydrogen-based alternatives to traditional fossil-based fuels. Electrofuels are ultra-low carbon drop-in fuels that can be used in today’s infrastructure and engines without modifications or upgrades.

Electrofuels are emerging as a next-generation low-carbon fuel alternative. Infinium’s technology focuses on production of liquid fuel alternatives for industries that are challenged with decarbonization today, such as long-haul trucking, marine and aviation. . . .

HyAxiom, Shell and partners to equip LNG carrier with SOFC APUs


HyAxiom Inc., a developer fuel cell systems, Shell, Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering (KSOE), DNV and Doosan Fuel Cell Co. are collaborating to power a deep-sea liquefied natural gas carrier with a HyAxiom-developed solid oxide fuel cell to test the technology’s ability to cut carbon emissions from maritime transport, a sector which is vital to trade and economies worldwide but is considered hard-to-abate.

The partners have agreed to launch a vessel powered by a HyAxiom-developed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) in 2025.

Under the agreement (following feasibility studies), HyAxiom will design and develop the SOFC Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) incorporating the 2 x 300 kW sub-systems for long-range maritime demonstration; DFCC will manufacture, carry out factory tests and deliver the product; Shell will charter the demonstration vessel; KSOE will assist with system integration and technological deployment; and DNV will provide technical and safety expertise.

Once launched, the vessel will operate for one year, during which the parties will collect valuable data on how to further integrate SOFC technology into current vessels and inform how future vessels can be powered by SOFC technology at scale. . . .
Recent commentary in the Vermont Digger:

Lots of hyperbole here.....
Road transport: Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) propulsion is much less efficient, more complicated, and thus more costly, than that of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). For these reasons, major vehicle manufacturers are focusing almost exclusively on BEV models for passenger transport which will lead to a global share for BEVs of 85% of new car sales in 2050, versus only 0.01% FCEVs. Regarding light commercial vehicles, the shares will be 64% and 4%, respectively in 2050.

Hydrogen was long seen as the only solution to decarbonize heavy trucking, but as things now stand, battery-electric solutions are likely to have a decent share in this segment. As a result, we project hydrogen to play only a minor role in road transport, namely for heavy-duty
long-distance trucking. By mid-century, hydrogen will account for a 2.5% share of road transport energy demand, slightly less then biomass and natural gas.


0.01% by 2050. Might be an overestimate.
dmacarthur said:
Recent commentary in the Vermont Digger:

Lots of hyperbole here.....
Yup. In order for hydrogen to have a future, we first need scalable sources of carbon-free hydrogen. The source referenced in the article (hydropower) is not scalable; the best sites already have dams on them. Hydrogen generated from fossil fuels would make even less sense; we'd be better off using those fuels directly. Next-generation nuclear might work at some point in the future.
oxothuk said:
Yup. In order for hydrogen to have a future, we first need scalable sources of carbon-free hydrogen. The source referenced in the article (hydropower) is not scalable; the best sites already have dams on them. Hydrogen generated from fossil fuels would make even less sense; we'd be better off using those fuels directly. Next-generation nuclear might work at some point in the future.

Couple of other hyperboles:
Yes, the hydrogen atom is universally available, but here on Earth it's as water. One reason is that it is readily oxidized - which results in a very energy intensive reduction back to "hydrogen" - let alone to a "cold liquid" - or as a dense gas for transportation.
Not too sure about this one: "If it’s a hydrogen tanker, liquid hydrogen will not burn; rather, it will slowly convert to gas form and quickly rise into the atmosphere to conjoin with oxygen molecules and form pure water vapor."
I'd like to see the author take a cylinder of dense phase hydrogen at 10,000 psig, hit is so hard that it ruptures and see what happens.
I missed a few of these while I was busy last month, so catching up, via GCC:

Cummins scaling Belgium electrolyzer manufacturing capacity to 1GW through IPCEI support


Cummins will expand PEM electrolyzer manufacturing capacity at its Oevel, Belgium, factory to 1 gigawatt with the support from the Important Project of Common European Interest (IPCEI) Hy2Tech program. IPCEI—recently approved by the European Commission, with funding granted by Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship Agency (VLAIO)—will help Cummins develop a new generation of PEM electrolyzer cell stacks to power large-scale hydrogen production systems.

The expansion in Belgium adds to Cummins’ already scaling global electrolyzer manufacturing footprint. The company has added capacity at its Mississauga, Canada, facility and is building two new electrolyzer factories in Spain and China, each starting at 500MW of manufacturing capacity and scalable to 1GW.

IPCEI Hy2Tech includes 41 projects from 35 companies in 15 European countries. . . .

Topsoe and First Ammonia sign 5GW electrolyzer agreement for green ammonia


Topsoe’s energy-efficient solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC) will be installed in First Ammonia’s green ammonia plants around the world in the coming years. The agreement provides for an initial purchase of 500MW of SOEC units and is expandable to up to 5GW over the lifetime of the agreement.

Topsoe’s SOEC manufacturing plant is to be built in Herning, Denmark, and has recently received FID from the board.

At 5GW, this would be the largest electrolyzer reservation of any type. The production of 5 million metric tons of green ammonia produced per year would eliminate 13 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions annually, the equivalent of taking 9 million gasoline-fueled cars off the road.

First Ammonia has been developing sites around the globe with the first installation of 500MW of capacity to be installed at locations in Northern Germany and Southwestern United States. These projects will be the world’s first commercial-scale, green ammonia production facilities with operation planned for 2025. First Ammonia will operate all its plants dynamically to support existing renewable power markets. . . .

ENGIE greenlights Australian renewable hydrogen project with Yara


ENGIE has taken the Final Investment Decision in the development of one of the world’s first industrial-scale renewable hydrogen projects, to be located in the Pilbara region of Western Australia.

Scheduled for completion in 2024, the first phase of the Yuri project will produce up to 640 tonnes of renewable hydrogen per year as a zero-carbon feedstock for Yara Australia’s ammonia production facility in Karratha. This will be key to developing a “Pilbara Green Hydrogen Hub”, serving local and export markets, and building on existing export infrastructure and abundant renewable energy resources in the region.

As announced in 2021, the Yuri project is being developed with the support of a $47.5-million grant from The Australian Government’s ARENA Renewable Hydrogen Deployment Fund and a $2-million grant by the Western Australian Government’s Renewable Hydrogen Fund. . . . .

The project will include a 10 MW electrolyzer powered by 18 MW of solar PV and supported by an 8 MW battery energy storage system, generating renewable hydrogen for use in Yara Australia’s ammonia facility at Karratha. Permitting is completed, a 100% offtake contract is in place with Yara and construction is set to commence by November 2022, due to a consortium made of Technip Energies and Monford Group selected as EPC contractor for the project.

Once commissioned it will be amongst the largest renewable energy powered electrolysis sites in the world, which will provide lessons to accelerate the hydrogen industry in Australia and demonstrate the ability to integrate electrolysers with ammonia plants. The project will also share knowledge and experiences in the areas of community engagement, permit processes and industry participation.

Rheinmetall presents solutions in South Africa for producing, storing and transporting green hydrogen


At this year’s Africa Aerospace & Defence (AAD) expo at AFB Waterkloof in Centurion, Rheinmetall AG is presenting turnkey, mobile modular solutions for producing, storing and transporting CO2-free hydrogen. The mobile solution offered by Group subsidiary Rheinmetall Denel Munition in South Africa assures climate-neutral energy security for stationary and mobile infrastructure in civil and industrial settings as well as for expedition and outdoor applications.

Suitable for use in undeveloped terrain, it does not require an external power supply. Moreover, because the system can simultaneously produce oxygen, it offers an all-encompassing solution for mobile field hospitals. Armed with this technology, Rheinmetall is not only expanding its civil sector operations as part of its hydrogen strategy: the Group’s plant engineering skills have put it on the path to becoming an energy producer.

The concept is based on electrolysis; electricity necessary for this is produced with solar panels. Wind and Hydropower can also be used to produce the required electricity.

Developed by Rheinmetall, all the components of this modular system can be combined into a fixed stationary system mode as well as into mobile applications of various scopes. With larger mobile set-ups, such as field hospitals, the conversion of solar power, electrolysis, storage of the hydrogen produced, and fuel cell based electrical generation takes place in separate containers.

The necessary modules can all be concentrated in a single container, operated by solar panels for producing electricity as well as water, thus further enhancing its potential for mobile operations. . . .

And some more recent articles, also GCC:

Mitsubishi Heavy and Indonesia’s ITB to conduct joint R&D on ammonia-fired power generation by turbine


Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) and Indonesia’s Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) have agreed to conduct joint research and development of ammonia-fired power generation by gas turbine. The project will apply Indonesia’s Institut Teknologi Bandung's (ITB) specialized expertise in chemical reaction engineering to probe optimization of ammonia firing.

MHI and ITB have already been undertaking joint research on a variety of clean energy solutions to help Indonesia achieve decarbonization. As part of that ongoing initiative, this new research will apply ITB’s expertise in chemical reaction engineering to optimize power generation using ammonia fuel. Following demonstration testing with MHI’s H-25 gas turbine, the R&D partners will work towards commercial application of ammonia-fired power generation in Indonesia. . . .

Nel receives NOK 600M purchase order for alkaline electrolyzers from Woodside for US project


Nel Hydrogen Electrolyser AS, a subsidiary of Nel ASA, has entered into a contract for alkaline electrolyzer equipment from Australia-based Woodside Energy for its proposed hydrogen project, H2OK, in Ardmore in the state of Oklahoma. The contract has a total value of about NOK 600 million (US$57 million).

This is a firm purchase order for alkaline stacks, balance of stack (BoS) equipment and engineering for the balance of plant (BoP) equipment (which Woodside will provide). There are pass-through mechanisms for steel and nickel price increases. Woodside aims to proceed with FID in 2023. Production of electrodes is estimated throughout 2024.

The electrolyzer stacks will be manufactured in Nel’s factory at Herøya, the world’s only fully automated electrolyzer facility.

H2OK—Woodside’s first hydrogen project in the US—is a liquid hydrogen production facility proposed for the Westport Industrial Park in Ardmore. Phase 1 involves construction of an initial 290-megawatt (MW) facility, producing up to 90 tonnes per day (tpd) of liquid hydrogen through electrolysis, targeting the heavy transport sector. The location offers the capacity for expansion up to 550 MW and 180 tpd.

The Nel equipment will support phase 1.

Woodside intends for H2OK to be a net-zero project. Power will be sourced from Oklahoma’s existing network, a large portion of which is wind-powered, and Renewable Energy Certificates will be used to abate any remaining emissions.

Woodside Energy is looking to expand its US footprint and is also working on two proposed hydrogen projects in Australia: H2Perth and H2Tas. . . .

Six dual-fuel MAN methanol ME-LGIM engines ordered for Maersk container ships


Hyundai’s shipbuilding division (HHI-SBD) has ordered 6 × MAN B&W G95ME-C10.5-LGIM dual-fuel main engines in connection with the construction of 6 × 17,000 teu container vessels for A.P. Moller – Maersk, the Danish integrated logistics company. Hyundai’s engine machinery division (HHI-EMD) will build the engines in Korea, which will be capable of running on green methanol.

The adoption of methanol propulsion is gaining pace, behind which there are several drivers. Crucially, MAN B&W methanol engines are available and proven with the first engines having already entered service back in 2016. Additionally, as a fuel, methanol can be carbon-neutral when produced from renewable energy sources and bio-genic CO2. The production capacity of such green methanol is currently increasing significantly; it is also liquid at ambient conditions, which simplifies tank design and minimises costs. Finally, our methanol engine only require a fuel-supply pressure of just 13 bar and a number of manufacturers already offer such fuel-supply systems today.

—Bjarne Foldager, Senior Vice President and Head of Two-Stroke Business, MAN Energy Solutions

We currently have a total order book for 78 ME-LGIM engines, of which 24 are firm orders for G95-variants. In addition, 19 of our 50-bore variants are already on the water and have accumulated more than 140,000 running hours on methanol alone. As a fuel, the future looks promising for methanol and we fully expect its uptake to encompass around 30% of all dual-fuel engine orders in just a few years from now.

—Thomas S. Hansen, Head of Promotion and Customer Support, MAN Energy Solutions. . . .

MAN developed the ME-LGI engine in response to interest from the shipping world in operating on alternatives to fuel oil in order to reach decarbonization targets. Methanol carriers have already operated at sea for many years using the engine, and, as such, the ME-LGIM has a proven track record offering great reliability and high fuel-efficiency.
Hydrogen Reality Check: Green Hydrogen Can Scale This Decade

A slew of new hydrogen projects in the works, coupled with sky-high fossil energy prices, point to a significant near-term role for green hydrogen.


The Myth: Green hydrogen will have a limited impact on global decarbonization during this decade.

The Reality: Green hydrogen is ready to play a major role in global emissions reductions by 2030.

No one could have anticipated the rate at which green hydrogen has established itself as a necessary part of our clean energy toolbox. This fuel and feedstock, produced using renewable energy, will be critical to decarbonizing large swaths of industry. Year after year, organizations have continually increased their projections of how much global electrolysis capacity will be online to produce hydrogen from electricity in 2030. Projections made this year are orders of magnitude greater than those from prior years (Exhibit 1).

Since 2019, over 34 countries have developed national strategies around hydrogen. In just the past six months, the EU’s green hydrogen targets for 2030 have quadrupled to 10 million metric tons (MMt), equivalent to roughly 100 GW of electrolyzer capacity, via the REPowerEU transition strategy. Given green hydrogen’s key role in decarbonizing industry and heavy transport, enabling domestic energy security, and stabilizing consumer prices, the world has acknowledged that we need green hydrogen at scale — and we need it faster than we ever thought.

The question has now become: will green hydrogen be able to scale to make a meaningful reduction in emissions this decade?

All signs are pointing to a resounding yes — green hydrogen is ready to scale this decade. Its growth does not hinge on breakthroughs, but rather on the backbone of presently available and commercially mature technologies. The public and private sector are coming together to incentivize early adoption, with projects currently moving from megawatts to gigawatts. Real commitments and action are happening today. . . .

And much more detail. For a shorter summary of the above, see this GCR article:

High gas prices spur green hydrogen investment -report


Soaring natural gas prices have made hydrogen produced from fossil fuels increasingly uneconomic and spurred more than $70 billion of new investment in hydrogen from renewables since war broke out in Ukraine, a report said on Thursday.

Green hydrogen has been touted as key to decarbonising industries that rely on coal, gas and oil - such as steel and chemicals. But the costs of production have traditionally been much higher than other forms of hydrogen. . . .

With gas prices having soared more than 70% on international markets since the start of the war in Ukraine in February, the cost of producing hydrogen from fossil fuels has become more expensive than green hydrogen, the report said.

In Europe, fossil-fuel hydrogen asset owners will see their costs of production rising by roughly 50% more than average green hydrogen costs to $7.60/kg, while new blue hydrogen in Asia costs 35% more at $6.40/kg and grey hydrogen is 29% more than green hydrogen.

The continued rapid investment in green hydrogen over the next few years could mean the production cost falls under $2/kg by 2030, from an average $3.80-$5.80/kg before the war in Ukraine.

This puts more than $100 billion worth of existing fossil hydrogen assets at risk of becoming stranded assets by 2030, the report said.

Deployment of renewables has been increasing this year as countries try to wean themselves off Russian gas, the International Energy Agency said this week.

Carbon Tracker estimates that 25 countries have committed $73 billion of public and private funds to the production of green hydrogen since the start of the Ur saykraine conflict, with Germany, Morocco and the United States pledging the most.

The article fails to provide a link or even name the report, which is sloppy. It mentions a couple of reports, but never says whether the info in the article came from either of them. One is the report on CO2 from the IEA I started a topic on, and that seems unlikely to be the source.
Hydrogen trains are up to 80% more expensive than battery hybrids. Overhead wires in some sections, batteries used when no overhead wires, batteries recharged by the overhead wires.