https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... -llnl.htmlLLNL report lays out technology pathways for California to become carbon-neutral and then -negative by 2045; 3 pillars of negative emissions
. . . To achieve the goal of carbon-neutrality, California will likely have to remove on the order of 125 million tons per year of CO2 from the atmosphere.
In the report, “Getting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions in California,” funded by the Livermore Lab Foundation (LLF) with grant support from the ClimateWorks Foundation, LLNL focused on three specific pillars of negative emissions: natural and working lands; carbon capture from biomass conversion to fuels; and direct air capture.
The team identified a portfolio of approaches for achieving greater than 125 million metric tons per year of negative emissions for California by 2045 and evaluated the scope of state and private investment to best achieve the goal.
Of the three, the authors concluded that converting the state’s waste biomass (about 56 million bone dry tons per year) into fuels with simultaneous capture of the process CO2 emissions holds the greatest potential for negative emissions in the State—some 84 million metric tons per year. More specifically, gasifying biomass to make hydrogen fuel and CO2 has the largest promise for CO2 removal at the lowest cost and aligns with the state’s goals on renewable hydrogen.
The report assesses the advanced carbon reduction technologies now available, their costs, as well as the tradeoffs necessary to reach the state’s decarbonization goal. The report codifies a number of significant conclusions by researchers at eight institutions. It serves as a resource for policymakers, government, academia and industry. . . .
- This study intentionally avoids any discussion of policies and does not include current incentives; it provides a range of options, tradeoffs and costs that can be used to inform future policies. The key finding of this report is that carbon neutrality is achievable.
—“Getting to Neutral”. . . .
- Without CO2 removal, reaching our carbon neutrality goal will be slower, more difficult and costly. While there are no silver bullets, we have evaluated strategies that rely on many existing technologies and resources, creating a CO2 removal blueprint that can be replicated.
—LLNL chemist Sarah Baker, lead author of the report.
Direct link to report (189 pgs.):
https://www-gs.llnl.gov/content/assets/ ... eutral.pdfGetting to Neutral: Options for Negative Carbon Emissions for California