Page 1 of 1

GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Sat Feb 15, 2020 5:39 pm
by GRA
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... 5-mit.html

The study focuses on the period between 2005 and 2018 and tracks combustion emissions of various polluting compounds from various sectors, looking at every state in the contiguous United States, from season to season and year to year.

In general, the researchers find that when air pollution is generated in one state, half of that pollution is lofted into the air and carried by winds across state boundaries, to affect the health quality of out-of-state residents and increase their risk of early death.

Electric power generation is the greatest contributor to out-of-state pollution-related deaths, the findings suggest. In 2005, for example, deaths caused by sulfur dioxide emitted by power plant smokestacks occurred in another state in more than 75% of cases.

Encouragingly, the researchers found that since 2005, early deaths associated with air pollution have gone down significantly. They documented a decrease of 30% in 2018 compared to 2005, equivalent to about 30,000 avoided early deaths, or people who did not die early as a result of pollution. In addition, the fraction of deaths that occur due to emissions in other states is falling—from 53% in 2005 to 41% in 2018.

Perhaps surprisingly, this reduction in cross-state pollution also appears to be related to electric power generation: In recent years, regulations such as the Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Air Act and other changes have helped to significantly curb emissions from this sector across the country.

The researchers caution, however, that today, emissions from other sectors are increasingly contributing to harmful cross-state pollution. . . .

They looked at multiple species of pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, and fine particulates, from various emissions sectors, including electric power generation, road transportation, marine, rail, and aviation, and commercial and residential sources, at intervals of every hour of the year.

They first obtained emissions data from each of seven sectors for the years 2005, 2011, and 2018. They then used the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry transport model to track where these emissions ended up, from season to season and year to year, based on wind patterns and a pollutant’s chemical reactions to the atmosphere.

Finally, they used an epidemiologically-derived model to relate a population’s pollutant exposure and risk of early death. . . .

For example, electric power generation has the greatest range, as power plants can loft pollutants far into the atmosphere, allowing them to travel over long distances. In contrast, commercial and residential sectors generally emit pollutants that chemically do not last as long in the atmosphere. . . .

In terms of the impact on individual states, the team found that many of the northern Midwest states such as Wyoming and North Dakota are “net exporters” of pollution-related health impacts, partly because the populations there are relatively low and the emissions these states generate are carried away by winds to other states.

Those states that “import” health impacts tend to lie along the East Coast, in the path of the US winds that sweep eastward.

New York in particular is what the researchers call “the biggest importer of air pollution deaths”; 60% of air pollution-related early deaths are from out-of-state emissions. . . .

Direct link to study article:
Premature mortality related to United States cross-state air pollution
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-1983-8

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Fri Feb 21, 2020 10:48 am
by Oilpan4
Too bad coal was pushed as the safe alternative by anti nuclear activists.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Fri Feb 21, 2020 4:45 pm
by jjeff
They finally put out the fire at Northern Metals Recycling after many days of it burning and toxic fumes spewing in the air, much of it drafting towards the twin cities of MSP :x It was a huge pile of crushed cars and burned for days on the various plastics and other flammables in a car! People near the fire were complaining of respiratory issues and local schools closed for days. All I could think of was what goes up, must come down :(
https://www.kare11.com/article/news/loc ... 149c0bade2

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Wed Mar 04, 2020 6:02 pm
by GRA
GCC:
Researchers say world faces air pollution pandemic
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/0 ... ution.html

Air pollution is responsible for shortening people’s lives worldwide on a scale far greater than wars and other forms of violence, parasitic and vector-born diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS and smoking, according to an open-access study published in Cardiovascular Research. . . .

Using a new method of modelling the effects of various sources of air pollution on death rates, the researchers estimated that globally air pollution caused an extra 8.8 million premature deaths a year in 2015. This represents an average shortening of life expectancy of nearly three years for all persons worldwide.

In comparison, tobacco smoking shortens life expectancy by an average of 2.2 years (7.2 million deaths); HIV/AIDS by 0.7 years (1 million deaths); diseases like malaria that are carried by parasites or insects such as mosquitoes, ticks and fleas by 0.6 years (600,000 deaths); and all forms of violence (including deaths in wars) by 0.3 years (530,000 deaths).

The researchers looked at the effect of air pollution on six categories of disease: lower respiratory tract infection; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; lung cancer; heart disease; cerebrovascular disease leading to stroke; and other, non-communicable diseases, which include conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes. They found that cardiovascular diseases (heart disease and cerebrovascular disease combined) are responsible for the greatest proportion of shortened lives from air pollution: 43% of the loss in life expectancy worldwide.

They also found that air pollution had a greater effect on shortening lives in older people, with the exception of deaths in children aged under five in low income countries, such as Africa and South Asia. Globally, about 75% of deaths attributed to air pollution occur in people aged over 60 years. . . .

The researchers estimate that if air pollution was reduced by removing fossil fuel emissions, the average life expectancy worldwide would increase by just over a year, and by nearly two years if all human-made emissions were removed.

However, there are large differences between regions due to the diversity in emissions. In East Asia, which has the highest loss of life expectancy due to avoidable air pollution, three of the average of four years of lost life expectancy could be prevented by the removal of human-made emissions; whereas in Africa, where population growth is rapid and pollution from dust predominates, only 0.7 of 3.1 years lost could be prevented.

In Europe, there is an average of 2.2 years of lost life expectancy, 1.7 of which could be prevented, and in North America there is an average of 1.4 years of lost life expectancy, of which 1.1 could be prevented, mostly by phasing out fossil fuels. . . .

Limitations of the study include the fact there is uncertainty surrounding the estimates, so the size of the effect of air pollution on deaths could be larger or smaller. Nevertheless, such uncertainty also applies to other health risk factors, including smoking. . . .

There are maps showing the distribution by cause and number of years of life lost.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Wed Mar 04, 2020 9:43 pm
by goldbrick
Maybe this is a little off topic but in the summer here on the front range of CO there are days when I drive (my Leaf) instead of ride my bike to work because of the ozone levels. I've heard a lot of the ozone comes from fracking operations east of here but regardless, it's something that seems to be getting worse every year. Used to be the 'brown cloud' was the worst air problem we had but that was mostly due to dust from the sand that is put on the roads in the winter and temperature inversions. Now, it's the summer air that seems worse.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Tue Apr 21, 2020 5:53 am
by GaleHawkins
Air quality seems to have been a factor in COVID-19 deaths and people are seeing EV ownership a future option.

https://electrek.co/2020/04/09/study-p ... ic-cars/

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Tue Apr 21, 2020 12:18 pm
by Oilpan4
Problem is people are quick to over react and and shoot off their mouths but are really slow when it comes to changing their actions.
Almost all of the people who say they are going to buy electric next time will go buy a gigantic status signaling SUV.

Re: GCC: MIT study: half of US deaths related to air pollution are linked to out-of-state emissions

Posted: Tue Apr 21, 2020 1:59 pm
by WetEV
Oilpan4 wrote:
Tue Apr 21, 2020 12:18 pm
Problem is people are quick to over react and and shoot off their mouths but are really slow when it comes to changing their actions.
Almost all of the people who say they are going to buy electric next time will go buy a gigantic status signaling SUV.
Hmmm I did both.

Audi e-tron.