GRA
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Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Mon Oct 04, 2021 6:47 pm

Pushed for time so mostly just links rather than quotes. All GCC:
Nikola and OPAL Fuels to co-develop and construct hydrogen fueling stations and related infrastructure for Class 8 FCEVs
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... ikola.html



RMI report maps out pathway for zero-carbon steel industry in China
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... china.html


Ardian, FiveT Hydrogen launch largest clean hydrogen infrastructure investment platform Hy24; €1.5B for first fund
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... rdian.html



Emerson and BayoTech partner to scale production and distribution of low-cost, modular SMRs for hydrogen production
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... otech.html



ABB and PERIC join forces to develop future efficient hydrogen electrolyzers
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... 4-abb.html



IEA: Decisive action by governments is critical to unlock growth for low-carbon hydrogen
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... ieah2.html

. . . Currently, global production of low-carbon hydrogen is minimal, its cost is not yet competitive, and its use in promising sectors such as industry and transport remains limited—but there are encouraging signs that it is on the cusp of significant cost declines and widespread global growth, according the IEA’s Global Hydrogen Review 2021.

When the IEA released its special report on The Future of Hydrogen for the G20 in 2019, only France, Japan and Korea had strategies for the use of hydrogen. Today, 17 governments have released hydrogen strategies, more than 20 others have publicly announced they are working to develop strategies, and numerous companies are seeking to tap into hydrogen business opportunities. Pilot projects are underway to produce steel and chemicals with low-carbon hydrogen, with other industrial uses under development. The cost of fuel cells that run on hydrogen continue to fall, and sales of fuel-cell vehicles are growing. . . .

The main obstacle to the extensive use of low-carbon hydrogen is the cost of producing it. This requires either large amounts of electricity to produce it from water, or the use of carbon capture technologies if the hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels. Almost all hydrogen produced today comes from fossil fuels without carbon capture, resulting in close to 900 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia.

Investments and focused policies are needed to close the price gap between low-carbon hydrogen and emissions-intensive hydrogen produced from fossil fuels. Depending on the prices of natural gas and renewable electricity, producing hydrogen from renewables can cost between 2 and 7 times as much as producing it from natural gas without carbon capture. But with technological advances and economies of scale, the cost of making hydrogen with solar PV electricity can become competitive with hydrogen made with natural gas, as set out in the IEA’s Roadmap to Net Zero by 2050.

Global capacity of electrolyzers has doubled over the last five years, with about 350 projects currently under development and another 40 projects in early stages of development. Should all these projects be realized, global hydrogen supply from electrolysers—which creates zero emissions provided the electricity used is clean—would reach 8 million tonnes by 2030. This is a huge increase from today’s level of less than 50,000 tonnes, but remains well below the 80 million tonnes required in 2030 in the IEA pathway to net zero emissions by 2050.

Practically all hydrogen use in 2020 was for refining and industrial applications. Hydrogen can be used in many more applications than those common today, the report highlights. Hydrogen has important potential uses in sectors where emissions are particularly challenging to reduce, such as chemicals, steel, long-haul trucking, shipping and aviation.

The broader issue is that policy action so far focuses on the production of low-carbon hydrogen while the necessary corresponding steps that are required to build demand in new applications is limited. Enabling greater use of hydrogen in industry and transport will require much stronger policy measures to foster the construction of the necessary storage, transmission and charging facilities.

Countries with hydrogen strategies have committed at least US$37 billion to the development and deployment of hydrogen technologies, and the private sector has announced additional investment of US$300 billion. But putting the hydrogen sector on path consistent with global net zero emissions by 2050 requires US$1,200 billion of investment between now and 2030, the IEA estimates. . . .
Link to report here: https://www.iea.org/news/decisive-actio ... n-hydrogen
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Tue Oct 12, 2021 6:18 pm

It's been a busy week on the H2 & FCEV front. All GCC:
Nikola and TC Energy to co-develop large-scale clean hydrogen hubs
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... ikola.html

Nikola Corporation and TC Energy Corporation, a leading North American energy infrastructure company, have agreed to collaborate on co-developing, constructing, operating and owning large-scale hydrogen production facilities (hubs) in the United States and Canada.

Nikola’s Energy business unit and TC Energy are actively collaborating to identify and ro develop projects to establish the infrastructure required to deliver low-cost and low-carbon hydrogen at scale in line with each company’s core objectives. Furthermore, Nikola and TC Energy desire to accelerate the adoption of heavy-duty zero-emission fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hydrogen across industrial sectors by establishing hubs in key geographic locations.

A key objective of the collaboration is to establish hubs producing 150 tonnes or more of hydrogen per day near highly traveled truck corridors to serve Nikola’s planned need for hydrogen to fuel its Class 8 FCEVs within the next five years.

TC Energy has significant pipeline, storage and power assets that potentially can be leveraged to lower the cost and increase the speed of delivery of these hydrogen production hubs. This may include exploring the integration of midstream assets to enable hydrogen distribution and storage via pipeline and/or to deliver CO2 to permanent sequestration sites to decarbonize the hydrogen production process.

Both Nikola and TC Energy are committed to reducing the carbon intensity (CI) of hydrogen produced and delivered to end-use markets utilizing renewable energy, as well as low-cost natural gas, renewable natural gas and biomass feedstocks paired with carbon capture and storage. Nikola and TC Energy are aligned in a technology-agnostic approach to find the best pathway to hydrogen production for each unique geography that is intended to result in the lowest CI and a clear pathway to achieve net-zero CI over time. . . .


Clean Energy awarded $13M contract to build hydrogen station and supply fuel for Foothill Transit buses
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... nergy.html

Clean Energy Fuels Corp. won a competitive solicitation to design, construct, and maintain a hydrogen station and supply liquid hydrogen fuel for Foothill Transit, an environmentally-friendly bus service in Southern California that averages 14 million rides a year. . . .

The agency is now entrusting Clean Energy to build its first hydrogen station in Pomona, CA, as it expands into another clean alternative fuel. The contract is valued at more than $13 million.

The project will be funded using assistance from the Federal Transportation Agency. Foothill Transit has placed an initial order for 20 New Flyer fuel cell buses, and the station is designed to support many more. . . .

In response to the solicitation, five proposals were submitted to Foothill Transit. Following interviews and an evaluation, Clean Energy was selected, receiving the highest technical and overall score.

Clean Energy is a leader in the development and delivery of RNG, a sustainable fuel derived from organic waste, which will represent 33.3% of the hydrogen feedstock for Foothill Transit buses. , , ,


DOE awards $20M to project to produce clean hydrogen from nuclear power
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... 8-pnw.html

. . . The project, based in Arizona, will make progress on DOE’s H2@Scale vision for clean hydrogen across multiple sectors and help meet the Department’s Hydrogen Shot goal of $1 per 1 kilogram in one decade.

The project, led by PNW Hydrogen LLC, will receive $12 million from the DOE’s Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (HFTO) and $8 million from DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for a total award of $20 million. The project will produce clean hydrogen from nuclear power at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station in Phoenix, Arizona—the largest nuclear plant and the single-largest generator of carbon-free electricity in the US.

Six tonnes of stored hydrogen will be used to produce approximately 200 MWh electricity during times of high demand, and may be also used to make chemicals and other fuels. The project will provide insights about integrating nuclear energy with hydrogen production technologies and inform future clean hydrogen production deployments at scale. . . .


Hyundai Mobis investing $1.1B in 2 new hydrogen fuel cell system plants in Korea
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... mobis.html

. . . The new plants will start mass production in the second half of 2023. When fully operational, the facilities are expected to produce 100,000 hydrogen fuel cells every year.

Once they are completed, Hyundai Mobis will operate a total of three fuel cells plants. In 2018, the company became the world’s first to set up a complete production system from fuel cell stack to rest of electronic components in Chungju. The Chungju plant is capable of producing approximately 23,000 hydrogen cell systems a year.

With the completion of the new plants, Hyundai Mobis plans to diversify its hydrogen business. Most fuel cell systems produced by Hyundai Mobis are used in fuel cell EVs but the company is expected to scale its business to other sectors such as construction machinery and logistics equipment.

Last year, Hyundai Mobis developed fuel cell power packs that go into hydrogen forklifts, opening up the possibility for entry into the construction machinery sector. The hydrogen power packs used by forklifts are generators that produce electricity on their own by combining a fuel cell stack, a hydrogen tank, and a cooling device.

Now the company is developing power packs for hydrogen-fueled excavator and plans to expand the fuel cell systems for small air mobility. . . .


Hyundai North America joins Shell Hydrogen’s Project Neptune to grow hydrogen refueling infrastructure in California
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... ptune.html

. . . Project Neptune seeks the construction of 48 additional and two upgraded hydrogen refueling stations across the state beginning in 2021. Two other fuel cell vehicle manufacturers—Toyota and Honda—have also joined the consortium with respective agreements for fuel cell vehicle sales to support infrastructure growth.

The project is to develop hydrogen refueling stations by adding hydrogen storage, compression, and dispensing equipment with an estimated maximum footprint of 2,000 square feet and trenching of up to 100 feet at existing retail gasoline stations. The storage tanks will hold 600 and 1,200 kg of hydrogen at 55 bar. The hydrogen station will dispense at 770 and 1,420 kg per 24 hour period.

In its portion of the agreement, Hyundai has committed to fuel cell vehicle sales growth supporting the expanding hydrogen infrastructure. . . .

Hydrogen refueling infrastructure growth is critical to increase consumer adoption of zero-emission fuel cell vehicles rapidly. By joining Project Neptune, Hyundai reinforces its commitment to fuel cell technologies and their positive impact on the environment, a key pillar of its long-range strategic vision.

The new hydrogen stations will be partially funded by public funds from the California Energy Commission (CEC). . . .


Hydrogen Heavy Duty Vehicle Industry Group signs agreements to industrialize 70 MPa high-flow refueling; H70HF
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... h70hf.html

The Hydrogen Heavy Duty Vehicle Industry Group—comprising Air Liquide, Hyundai, Nel Hydrogen, Nikola Corporation, Shell and Toyota—has signed agreements with Tatsuno Corporation and Transfer Oil S.p.A. to industrialize globally-standard 70 MPa hydrogen heavy-duty vehicle high-flow (H70HF) fueling hardware components.

The Industry Group was formed in February 2019 with the goal of addressing hydrogen fueling hardware challenges of achieving the fueling speeds that are needed for heavy-duty applications today. Other goals include testing and evaluating the hardware’s performance and standardizing the connector design to ensure adoptability throughout the world.

The group created specifications for the fueling nozzle, vehicle receptacle, dispenser hose, and breakaway device components for this heavy-duty application.

This builds upon the collaboration of the hydrogen industry that achieved a global standard fueling interface for light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles. . . .

The fueling hardware is anticipated to support average hydrogen fueling rates of 10 kg/min—in line with the US Department of Energy’s Technical Targets for Hydrogen-Fueled Long-Haul Tractor-Trailer Trucks. Testing is planned at an independent test facility and scheduled to commence in Q4 2021, with preliminary performance and safety results available in Q1 2022.


NREL and Electric Hydrogen partner to develop high-performance electrolyzer components
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... el-eh.html

. . . The three-year, $3.6-million project will diagnose sources of degradation in commercial electrolysis cells and will validate advanced designs that use higher stack currents.

In June, Electric Hydrogen closed a $24-million Series A financing to support continued product development and expansion of its operations in the Greater Boston and San Francisco Bay areas. Electric Hydrogen was founded by a team of energy transition veterans from First Solar and Tesla. . . .

This project builds on more than a decade of research and capability investment at NREL by DOE’s Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office and supports DOE’s H2@Scale vision for clean hydrogen across multiple applications and economic sectors. It will complement ongoing work through two NREL-led, multi-lab consortia: Hydrogen from Next-generation Electrolysis of Water (H2NEW), focused on materials and component integration, manufacturing, and scale-up to help support large industry deployment of durable, efficient, and low-cost electrolyzers, and HydroGEN, focused on accelerating development of less mature water-splitting materials and technologies to complement the work of H2NEW.

For the Electric Hydrogen project, the researchers will specifically look at proton-exchange membrane electrolysis and will study the methods of managing heat and degradation with high current densities. The team members aim to integrate and optimize multiple specially engineered layers, shrinking the system size and costs while designing for a future large commercial-scale stack.


HyPoint working with BASF New Business to develop high-performance hydrogen fuel cell membranes for aviation; >3,000 W/kg
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... point.html

HyPoint, a company developing turbo air-cooled hydrogen-fuel-cell systems for aviation and urban air mobility (earlier post), has entered into a strategic development agreement with BASF New Business GmbH (BNB), a subsidiary of chemical company BASF. The purpose of the partnership is to develop and test a new proton-conductive Celtec membrane with stronger mechanical properties that can operate at higher temperatures and a higher pressure differential, as well as related components and materials.

HyPoint’s core innovation is a new turbo air-cooling architecture. By utilizing compressed air for both cooling and oxygen supply, HyPoint reduces overall weight compared with traditional liquid cooling. HyPoint is also using a next-generation high temperature membrane (HTPEM) instead of a low temperature membrane (LTPEM), which increases the efficiency of a cooling system by at least 300%. . . .

The new high-performance fuel cell system is expected to achieve more than 3,000 W/kg, an increase of at least 50% over the current system, and become available to customers in mid-2024. . . .

BASF has been manufacturing Celtec membranes and MEAs for more than 15 years. While cyclic operation, various impurities in the gas flow, and changing environmental conditions can stress the materials used in low-temperature (LTPEM) fuel cells, Celtec HTPEM MEAs allow operation at temperatures between 120 °C and 180 °C, enabling a high tolerance to impurities while simplifying temperature and water management.

HyPoint’s current flagship hydrogen fuel cell system offers at least 2,000 W/kg of specific power—more than triple the power-to-weight ratio of traditional (liquid-cooled) hydrogen fuel cells systems—and up to 1,500 Wh/kg of energy density, enabling longer-distance journeys. HyPoint’s lightweight, climate-independent, extended-lifespan system increases operational time and utilization rate while decreasing total cost of ownership by as much as 50%. . . .


Repsol produces renewable hydrogen from biomethane from urban solid waste
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... epsol.html



Spain-based energy and petrochemical company Repsol has produced renewable hydrogen using biomethane as raw material for the first time. This renewable hydrogen was used to manufacture fuels with a low carbon footprint, such as gasoline, diesel, or kerosene for aviation.

This milestone took place at Repsol’s Cartagena Industrial Complex, where 10 tons of renewable hydrogen were produced from 500 MWh of biomethane, thus avoiding the emission of about 90 tons of CO2.

The biomethane used as raw material was obtained from urban solid waste. In this way, Repsol replaces conventional natural gas with biomethane of sustainable origin to produce renewable hydrogen in its industrial complexes and thus decarbonize its processes and products.

This first industrial test carried out by Repsol will also serve as an example for developing the system of guarantees of origin for renewable gases to be implemented in Spain. . . .

As for renewable hydrogen, Repsol has already announced its intention to become a market leader in the Iberian Peninsula by installing a capacity of 552 MW equivalent in 2025 and 1.9 GW in 2030. Repsol is currently the leading producer and consumer of hydrogen in Spain, and it uses this gas regularly as a raw material in its industrial processes.

The company is already deploying a multitude of projects throughout the renewable hydrogen value chain. It is promoting the creation of large regional consortiums to promote major industrial projects, such as the Basque Hydrogen Corridor, the Hydrogen Valley in Catalonia, the Hydrogen cluster in Castilla-La Mancha, and the renewable hydrogen hub around the Escombreras Valley in Cartagena.

On 20 September, Repsol announced that it will start up its first electrolyzer in Petronor, with a capacity of 2.5 MW, in 2022. In 2024, a 10 MW electrolyzer is scheduled to start up, also in the vicinity of Petronor, to serve the synthetic fuels plant that the company will build together with Saudi Aramco. In addition, Repsol plans to construct other electrolyzers at Petronor and Cartagena, each with a capacity of 100 MW, to supply its industrial complexes with renewable hydrogen.

The achievement of these objectives will be made possible through the installation of electrolyzers and biogas production plants at the company's industrial complexes, as well as the development of the proprietary photoelectrocatalysis technology. This technology is a joint development of Repsol and Enagas, and a demonstration plant will be installed at the Puertollano industrial complex in 2025 to obtain hydrogen directly from water using solar energy.

Repsol will allocate an additional €1 billion to low-carbon projects in the 2021-2025 period, up to a total of €6.5 billion, compared to the €5.5 billion established in the company’s Strategic Plan. Now, investments earmarked for low-emission initiatives will stand at 35% in the 2021-2025 period, and the capital employed for these purposes will reach 45% in 2030. The new values represent an increase of five percentage points with respect to those established in the Strategic Plan presented almost a year ago.


IDTechEx: market value of on-road fuel-cell vehicles to grow to $160B in 2042; 23.9% CAGR over 20 years
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... echex.html

IDTechEx’s analysis in their new report, “Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles 2022-2042”, forecasts the market value of on-road fuel cell vehicles will grow to $160 billion in 2042 at a CAGR of 23.9% over the 20-year forecast period.

The effort to decarbonize on-road vehicles is undoubtedly being led by BEVs; however serious concern remains around whether BEV solutions can deliver the necessary duty cycle for those use cases that require significant range, brief downtime, and high operational flexibility—long-haul trucking and high-milage city bus operations, for example.

In such applications, a huge 500+ kWh battery will be required to reliably deliver 350+ km of range on a single charge, and full recharging, even with 350kW ultra-fast chargers, will take hours. This becomes an even greater challenge in a depot situation, where megawatts of power are required. Hyundai’s XCIENT fuel cell heavy-duty truck delivers ~400km of range, with a 73kWh Li-ion battery and hydrogen fuel cell system, requiring less than 20 minutes to refuel.

The growing momentum pushing a rapid transition to zero-emission vehicles, combined with a genuine need for range comparable to diesel powertrains and quick refueling, means massive automotive players like Toyota, Hyundai, GM, and Daimler are continuing to pump millions into improving fuel cell system technology and bringing down costs.

Major automotive markets including Japan, Korea, China, Germany, and California are planning for the significant deployment of fuel cell vehicles (FCEV).

Germany has already built around 100 hydrogen refueling stations (HRS), offering a capacity to support 40,000 passenger cars, though their current fleet is less than 1,000. Germany is providing a testbed for FCEV in Europe and will challenge the assertion that the lack of hydrogen infrastructure is to blame for the lack of FCEV uptake. Relatively small fleets of heavy-duty FCEV could provide sufficient hydrogen demand to viably operate an HRS.

Versus cars, the value proposition for fuel cell trucks and buses is stronger, and IDTechEx does not expect fuel cell cars to be a commercial success comparative to battery-electric ones. However, the scale of the car market and substantial support for the development of a wider hydrogen economy by governments and companies in key regions mean IDTechEx forecast that, in 2042, 60.3% of on-road FCEV market revenue will be from the passenger car market.

Fuel cell makers will benefit from the volume of the car market to drive down costs for other sectors where the technology is more critical.

Indeed, FCEV deployment faces considerable challenges, including decreasing the cost of fuel cell system components to reduce the upfront vehicle cost, while rolling out sufficient hydrogen refueling infrastructure to make driving a FCEV viable. Also essential to the legitimacy of FCEV as a low-carbon emission solution will be the availability of cheap green hydrogen, produced by the electrolysis of water using renewable electricity, which analysis in the IDTechEx report highlights, will be vital to FCEVs delivering the environmental credentials on which they are being sold.

Cheap grey hydrogen generated from fossil fuels makes little sense as a low emission transport fuel because the well-to-wheel emission footprint of a FCEV using grey H2 offers only a marginal CO2 saving versus modern diesel vehicles. . . .


Snam launches HyAccelerator global-scale accelerator for hydrogen startups
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... -snam.html

Snam, the main Italian operator for the transport and dispatching of natural gas in Italy, launched HyAccelerator, a corporate global-scale startup acceleration program focused on hydrogen. The program kicked off with the first call for startups, dedicated to players active along the entire hydrogen value chain, from transportation to storage and end uses.

The startups selected after the calls will have access to an acceleration process lasting between four and six months, with research and development support, as well as mentoring, networking and technology testing. These activities will also be able to leverage on the network of the Hydrogen Innovation Center opened by Snam in partnership with universities and research centres.

At the end of the program, the startups will conduct feasibility studies with Snam for future hydrogen pilot projects. Snam aims at exploring and supporting technologies with the greatest potential to accelerate the development of hydrogen and contribute to efforts to decarbonize the economic system, in line with national and international climate targets. . . .

Late in September, Snam and IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency) announced a partnership agreement aimed at developing hydrogen based on renewables (green hydrogen) to support the energy transition worldwide.

The two parties will cooperate to study and possibly implement alongside other partners, pilot projects on renewables generation, transport and distribution of green hydrogen with a view to the development of replicable business cases. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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Hydrogen and FCEVs Press Release Thread

Wed Oct 13, 2021 9:44 am

I think we should rename this thread the "Hydrogen and FCEVs Press Release Highlights", since there is no actual discussion here.
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Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Wed Oct 13, 2021 12:37 pm

Hey, you're a mod, I'm not. Why not just remove "discussion" from the title? It may be that discussion will return at some point in the future. Or not.

Both GCC:
Zemo hydrogen well-to-wheel study highlights need for inclusion of life cycle energy & GHGs in net-zero plans
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... -zemo.html

A new study by the UK-based Zemo Partnership recommends that UK Government policy should increase its focus on the well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and overall energy efficiency performance of new fuels for transport. While hydrogen, electric and renewable fuels (produced from waste-based feedstocks) can all radically cut emissions compared with their diesel-powered counterparts, there are major variations in their effectiveness and efficiency in terms of cutting emissions depending on choices made over the full well- to-wheel life cycle.

The study warns that a focus solely on mitigating tailpipe emissions can risk neglecting the full impacts and the overall energy consumption of the system. With limited biogenic resources and renewable electricity supplies, it is critical to adopt energy efficient solutions to maximise full system benefits wherever possible.

The new study looks specifically at hydrogen, extending analysis provided in the recently published (also by Zemo) Low Carbon Hydrogen Well-to-Tank Pathways Study.

The work comes shortly after the publication of the Government’s UK hydrogen strategy, a potentially important component of the overall decarbonization plan for transport. Key building blocks of the hydrogen strategy are currently under consultation and the Zemo Partnership work is intended to help inform these.

The Zemo analysis combines GHG and energy consumption data for four vehicle applications: D-segment passenger car, small van, single decker bus and a fully laden 18t GVW heavy goods vehicle. It presents well-to-wheel results for the most promising hydrogen vehicle powertrain architectures using battery-electric, diesel and renewable fuels for comparison.

The study looks at hydrogen produced for transport use through electrolysis; biomass gasification with carbon capture and storage (CCS); and methane reformation with CCS (all potentially very low carbon and GHG solutions)—as well as from fossil fuels without CCS mitigation. The work explores the sensitivity of GHG emissions and energy consumption to a range of inputs and options, with more than 250 well-to-wheel scenarios being modeled in the 2020-2035 timeframe.

Among the main findings:

Each of the hydrogen vehicle architectures analyzed can deliver low carbon, and in some cases negative, WTW GHG emissions solutions over the next decade. This outcome is identical across light and heavy-duty vehicle segments and is predicated on the use of low-carbon hydrogen.

When comparing the WTW GHG emissions performance of BEV, ICEV using renewable fuels (produced from waste-based feedstocks), and hydrogen HGVs using low-carbon hydrogen, all technology options perform better than incumbent fossil-fueled diesel vehicles.

The WTW energy efficiency of hydrogen vehicles is lower than diesel ICEV, BEV and ICEV using renewable fuels. The difference is most pronounced for heavy-duty vehicles. In the case of HGVs, FCEV trucks are in the order of four to six times less energy efficient than BEV on a WTW basis. Irrespective of the low-carbon hydrogen supply pathway, the hydrogen production process is energy-intensive thereby influencing WTW energy efficiency. This finding highlights the importance of accounting for energy consumption along with WTW GHG emissions and ensuring an energy efficient transition to net zero GHG emissions.

There are a variety of powertrains and fuels that can potentially achieve net zero WTW GHG emissions, but with limited biogenic resources and renewable electricity supplies, it is critical to adopt energy efficient solutions to maximise the benefits wherever possible. For example, hydrogen vehicles would need to demonstrate other benefits beyond WTW (e.g. superior payload, vehicle range, lower operational costs) to compensate for the increased energy consumption compared to alternative powertrain solutions such as BEV.

Which are exactly the areas they provide advantages over BEVs for long-haul and/or heavy payloads. Continuing:

WTW GHG emissions are dominated by the hydrogen supply chain production method, with distribution and dispensing having less impact. Green hydrogen supply chains deliver the lowest WTW GHG emissions for hydrogen vehicles. Vehicles using hydrogen produced from steam methane reformation and electrolysis using current grid electricity do not perform better than diesel ICEV; grey hydrogen is to be avoided.

WTW GHG emissions are highly sensitive to the electricity grid carbon intensity; this is relevant for both hydrogen and battery electric vehicles. As a result, it is critical that consistent WTT GHG emissions factors for electricity are adopted by Government and industry when comparing different zero, and low carbon, vehicle technologies. This is especially important for hydrogen produced by electrolysis and in comparison to BEV.

Care needs to be exercised with carbon accounting for low carbon hydrogen supply chains that achieve negative GHG emissions, notably BECCS (BioEnergy with Carbon Capture and Storage). These pathways could inadvertently result in the promotion of energy inefficient technology. . . .

The study recommends that further feasibility work including energy analysis, should be done to assess the suitability of different vehicles for different use cases to inform the potential role of hydrogen in the HGV sector. Relevant factors would include vehicle payload and capacity, range, refueling/charging time and infrastructure. The work could potentially be integrated into the Government’s ongoing Zero Emission Freight Trials (ZERFT) which Zemo is also supporting.

The choice of carbon intensity factors for grid electricity, both now and in the future, is a critical sensitivity within the analysis and an area needing much more consistent data.


Air Liquide and Faurecia partner to develop on-board liquid hydrogen storage systems
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... quide.html

Air Liquide and Faurecia signed a joint development agreement to design and produce on-board liquid hydrogen storage systems for the automotive industry.

Liquid hydrogen storage for fuel cell vehicles is well-suited for long-haul applications; with this technology, the amount of hydrogen stored is double that of gaseous hydrogen. As a consequence, heavy duty trucks operating on liquid hydrogen have twice the autonomy of those operating on gaseous hydrogen, and benefit from a short refueling time and optimized payload. . . .

By 2030, fuel cell vehicle production could represent 2.5 million vehicles, of which 20% could be commercial trucks, the partners said. Due to intensive usage, by 2030, heavy-duty vehicles could represent close to 60% of the hydrogen consumption for mobility markets.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

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Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs Press Release Thread

Thu Oct 14, 2021 11:59 am

jlv wrote:
Wed Oct 13, 2021 9:44 am
I think we should rename this thread the "Hydrogen and FCEVs Press Release Highlights", since there is no actual discussion here.
Why not go further and rename it to "GRA's Hydrogen Propaganda"? He espouses "copper shots, not silver bullets", yet drives an old subaru, despite having a driveway that can accommodate a home EVSE. And he's adamant that a BEV isn't the right solution, despite the fact that CCS chargers are popping all over the place. We've discussed the drawbacks (and thus dead-end) of FCEV's ad-infinitum, and yet he persists. He says that climate change is an issue, but contributes towards a fantasy of the fossil fuel industry (because steam-reformed-natural-gas is where most of those FCEV's get their hydrogen from)

This thread literally serves no other purpose than for him to spread his hydrogen hopium.
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Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Fri Oct 15, 2021 4:23 pm

I don't feel like either BEVs or FCEVs have yet matured enough to replace ICEs. So I'm interested in hearing about developments for both.

But I agree that a daily string of press release clippings with no commentary is pretty useless.
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Location: NM

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs Press Release Thread

Fri Oct 15, 2021 4:30 pm

Oils4AsphaultOnly wrote:
Thu Oct 14, 2021 11:59 am
This thread literally serves no other purpose than for him to spread his hydrogen hopium.
I'm not sure I agree. It gives him an outlet to contribute to hydrogen green-washing
2013 LEAF 'S' Model with QC & rear-view camera
Bought Jan 2017 from N. California
Two years in Colorado, now in NM
03/18: 58 Ahr @28k miles. 10/21: 53.4 Ahr @ 40k miles
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2018 Tesla Model 3 LR, Delivered 6/2018

oxothuk
Posts: 66
Joined: Tue May 04, 2021 2:35 pm
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Location: Colorado Front Range

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Sun Oct 17, 2021 10:37 am

GRA wrote:
Wed Oct 13, 2021 12:37 pm

Air Liquide and Faurecia partner to develop on-board liquid hydrogen storage systems
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... quide.html

Air Liquide and Faurecia signed a joint development agreement to design and produce on-board liquid hydrogen storage systems for the automotive industry.

Liquid hydrogen storage for fuel cell vehicles is well-suited for long-haul applications; with this technology, the amount of hydrogen stored is double that of gaseous hydrogen. As a consequence, heavy duty trucks operating on liquid hydrogen have twice the autonomy of those operating on gaseous hydrogen, and benefit from a short refueling time and optimized payload. . . .

By 2030, fuel cell vehicle production could represent 2.5 million vehicles, of which 20% could be commercial trucks, the partners said. Due to intensive usage, by 2030, heavy-duty vehicles could represent close to 60% of the hydrogen consumption for mobility markets.
Even if an on-board storage system can be developed, that doesn't get around the enormous energy cost of liquefying hydrogen. To the extent that HFCEVs have a future, it won't be with liquid hydrogen.
May 2021 - 2021 SL+ , 4K miles, 96.6% SOH

GRA
Posts: 13289
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Mon Oct 18, 2021 4:23 pm

oxothuk wrote:
Sun Oct 17, 2021 10:37 am
GRA wrote:
Wed Oct 13, 2021 12:37 pm

Air Liquide and Faurecia partner to develop on-board liquid hydrogen storage systems
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... quide.html

Air Liquide and Faurecia signed a joint development agreement to design and produce on-board liquid hydrogen storage systems for the automotive industry.

Liquid hydrogen storage for fuel cell vehicles is well-suited for long-haul applications; with this technology, the amount of hydrogen stored is double that of gaseous hydrogen. As a consequence, heavy duty trucks operating on liquid hydrogen have twice the autonomy of those operating on gaseous hydrogen, and benefit from a short refueling time and optimized payload. . . .

By 2030, fuel cell vehicle production could represent 2.5 million vehicles, of which 20% could be commercial trucks, the partners said. Due to intensive usage, by 2030, heavy-duty vehicles could represent close to 60% of the hydrogen consumption for mobility markets.
Even if an on-board storage system can be developed, that doesn't get around the enormous energy cost of liquefying hydrogen. To the extent that HFCEVs have a future, it won't be with liquid hydrogen.

I agree that consumer vehicles almost certainly won't use LH2 (for safe handling issues), but commercial vehicles are another matter. As for the 'enormous energy cost' of liquefying H2, depends what the savings are. For instance, First Element switched from gaseous to liquid H2 delivery for their newer stations because they wanted to scale up the capacity by 3-6 times and cut down the number of fuel deliveries of their newer stations. Using liquid instead of gaseous H2 meant one driver could deliver 3-4 times as much H2 in a single trip. Obviously, it penciled out for them.

Commercial vehicles will make similar calcs, depending on volume, weight and operational restrictions. Alternatively they'll use ammonia or LOHCs, which avoid much or all of the energy cost of liquifying H2. I post examples of all of the above plus BEVs in the "AFV Truck/Commercial Vehicle" topic rather than this one.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 13289
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Hydrogen and FCEVs discussion thread

Mon Oct 18, 2021 4:59 pm

I'm interested in all AFVs, and will continue to psot in all those areas, until such time as one or more green transport techs have proven commercially viable and substantially replaced fossil-fueled transport, as well as a variety of industrial applications. So here's some for today, all GCC (Plug Power seems to have had a press release dump):
DOE selects Shell-led consortium to demonstrate feasibility of large-scale liquid hydrogen storage in $12M project
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... shell.html

A consortium of public, private and academic experts led by Shell International Exploration and Production, Inc. (Shell), a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell plc, is working to enable large-scale liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage for international trade applications.

Shell and the consortium partners—including McDermott’s CB&I Storage Solutions, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, GenH2 and the University of Houston—have been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office to demonstrate that a large-scale LH2 tank, with a capacity ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 cubic meters, is both feasible and cost competitive at import and export terminals.

Shell will lead the project and provide guidance on hydrogen supply chain and safety. CB&I Storage Solutions will provide engineering, design and LH2 construction storage expertise. GenH2 will design and manufacture one of the world’s most advanced thermal testing devices, known as Cryostat-900. NASA will work closely with GenH2 on novel testing development. The University of Houston will focus their efforts on the creation of detailed thermal models of the proposed insulation systems.

The DOE has awarded $6 million to finance the project, and Shell and CB&I Storage Solutions will both provide an additional $3 million each, for a total project fund of $12 million. . . .


Phillips 66, Plug Power to collaborate to scale green hydrogen in industrial & mobility sectors; infrastructure and fueling capabilities
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... power.html

Phillips 66, which has 13 wholly owned and joint venture refineries in the US and Europe, owns extensive hydrogen-related infrastructure and uses hydrogen in the manufacturing of transportation fuels. With more than 20 years of history, and customers such as Amazon, Walmart and Home Depot, Plug Power is a leader in hydrogen fuel cells and electrolyzers. The company has begun construction on green hydrogen production facilities in California, New York, Tennessee and Georgia that will ultimately supply 500 tons per day of liquid green hydrogen by 2025.

As part of this agreement, the companies will explore ways to deploy Plug Power’s technology within Phillips 66’s operations, leveraging Plug Power’s experience as a full value chain provider within the hydrogen economy. . . .

The companies’ memorandum of understanding provides a framework for working together on three key objectives:

Integrating and scaling low-carbon hydrogen in the industrial sector;

Advancing hydrogen fueling opportunities for the mobility sector; and

Developing hydrogen-related infrastructure to support the build-out of the hydrogen value chain. . . .


Plug Power partners with Airbus on study to decarbonize air travel & airport operations with green hydrogen
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... power.html

As part of its goal of bringing zero-emission aircraft to market by 2035, Airbus has identified green hydrogen as one of the most promising options to decarbonize air travel and will be working closely with Plug Power on a joint study and roadmap that could deliver green hydrogen to aircraft and the airport ecosystem in the coming years.

Plug Power will build deployment scenarios for green hydrogen infrastructure at airports, while Airbus will provide insight on hydrogen aircraft characteristics. . . .

Today, the aviation industry represents between 2-3% of global human-induced CO2 emissions. Airports are large cargo hubs that traditionally rely on fossil fuels to power a wide array of ground transport and equipment, and to heat buildings and terminals. Green hydrogen, which is produced through the electrolysis of water with electricity generated from renewable energy sources, has been earmarked by a variety of industries as a potential means to achieve their decarbonization targets, and the aviation industry is no exception.

As part of the partnership, Plug Power and Airbus will select a US airport to serve as the first “Hydrogen Hub” pilot airport in North America, serving as a case study for hydrogen infrastructure scale-up at other airports. . . .


Cummins to introduce 15-liter natural gas engine for North America; basis for hydrogen engine under development
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... mmins.html

. . . The 15-liter natural gas engine is an important part of Cummins strategy for its path to zero emissions. The strategy focuses on new powertrains including advanced diesel, natural gas, hydrogen engines, hybrids, battery electric, and fuel cells along with an increased use of low carbon fuels and renewable electricity and related infrastructure.


Louisiana Governor and Air Products announce US$4.5B blue hydrogen clean energy complex in Eastern Louisiana
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... lueh2.html

. . . Air Products will build, own and operate the megaproject, which will produce more than 750 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) of blue hydrogen in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. “Blue” products are produced utilizing hydrocarbons as a feedstock, with the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the production process captured for permanent sequestration. . . .

A portion of the blue hydrogen will be compressed and supplied to customers by Air Products’ extensive US Gulf Coast hydrogen pipeline network. The network is the largest hydrogen pipeline system in the world, stretching more than 700-miles from Galveston Bay in Texas to New Orleans, Louisiana. Today, this vast US Gulf Coast pipeline network can supply customers with more than 1.6 billion cubic feet of hydrogen per day from approximately 25 production facilities, including blue hydrogen from Air Products’ Port Arthur, Texas facility.

The Port Arthur facility has captured approximately one million tons of CO2 annually since 2013, with the CO2 transported via pipeline and utilized for enhanced oil recovery operations.

The balance of the blue hydrogen from the new Ascension Parish facility will be used to make blue ammonia that will be transported around the world and converted back to blue hydrogen for transportation and other markets.

The megaproject will also feature the world’s largest instance of CO2 capture for permanent sequestration and produce only environmentally friendly blue products. The megaproject is expected to be operational in 2026.

Approximately 95% of the CO2 generated at the facility will be captured, compressed and transported by pipeline to multiple inland sequestration sites located along a pipeline corridor extending up to 35 miles to the east of the new production facility. More than five million metric tons per year (MTPY) of CO2 will be permanently sequestered in geologic pore space secured from the State of Louisiana approximately one mile beneath the surface. . . .

This new Louisiana clean energy megaproject announcement follows Air Products’ announcement in June 2021 of a multi-billion-dollar net-zero hydrogen energy complex in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and its previous announcement of the green ammonia production facility joint venture in NEOM, Saudi Arabia powered by renewable energy for the production and export of carbon-free hydrogen to global markets. . . .


Topsoe puts eSMR demonstration plant into operation for production of sustainable methanol from biogas
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2021/1 ... opsoe.html

. . . The project is supported by the EUDP Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program and is developed together with Aarhus University.

The climate benefits from using sustainable methanol is not limited to one single purpose. Sustainable methanol can be used for marine fuel, blend in gasoline, and for the chemical industry, where methanol is mainly used today.

The main feature in the demonstration plant is Topsoe’s eSMR technology, which enables not only the production of sustainable methanol, but also other sustainable products like green hydrogen, green ammonia, eFuels, and more. . . .

The demonstration plant is located at Aarhus University’s research facility in Foulum, Denmark. The plant will have an annual capacity of 10,000 liters of CO2-neutral methanol from biogas and green power and is scheduled to be fully operational by the beginning of 2022. . . .

The technology produces synthesis gas (syngas), an essential building block in production of polymers (plastics) and chemicals. The eSMR technology is CO2-neutral when based on biogas as feedstock and green electricity for heating. It utilizes half the CO2 that makes up about 40% of biogas and typically is costly to separate and vent in production of grid quality biogas.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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