Yes. If the range is adequate year-round (at the lowest TCO, i.e no replacing the pack halfway through the vehicle's life) then a BEV is fine. If not, FCEV.smkettner wrote: ↑Sun Jul 26, 2020 5:28 pmI could easily see many motor coaches going battery electric. Been on plenty of tour buses that go less than 600 miles, put the group in a hotel for 1 or 2 nights before they do it again and repeat for 5 to 21 days. I assume range of the Tesla Semi. This would work fine for many RVs too.
OK Greyhound 24/7 maybe not so much. Would have to stop and charge at many of the stops for I assume a full hour+ meal break.
As has been pointed out many times to you, you're entitled to your opinion. It's likely but we'll see, and it doesn't change the fact that batteries are currently unable to compete in that particular environment. Maybe they will by the time H2 can compete with gas in price (assuming it can), maybe not, but as of now they can't. As truck and bus traffic has an outsized effect on emissions, they have to be cleaned up sooner rather than later:WetEV wrote: ↑Sun Jul 26, 2020 7:04 pm
What portion of statewide emissions are heavy-duty trucks responsible
Heavy-duty trucks emit nearly 33 percent of NOx, 26 percent of PM 2.5, and 8 percent
of GHG based on statewide emission sources. These vehicles represent significant
sources of emissions, and reductions from these sources are necessary to meet
California’s air quality goals.
smkettner wrote: ↑Sun Jul 26, 2020 9:13 pmThe ones to watch are Tesla Semi and Nikola. Seems odd that lately Nikola is leaning a bit more onto the battery side of things.
Do we have a count on EV buses vs FC buses? Because my guess is production EV holds 90% or better in this battle.
Time will tell but the writing seems to be on the wall high and clear.
CSIRO team optimistic about use of nitrogenase in applications such as green ammonia production for carrying H2
In a review paper published in the journal ChemSusChem, researchers from Australia’s CSIRO conclude that the combination of synthetic biology and materials chemistry will provide many viable options to allow the use of nitrogenase for energy applications, such as the production of green ammonia for use as a preferred liquid carrier for hydrogen.
"To export hydrogen from regions with high renewable energy intensity to those lean in renewable energy requires hydrogen to be in a form that is transportable. … in recent years significant advances have been made in both NH3 decomposition catalysts and membranes for hydrogen separation. These advances have provided technologies that are both scalable and economically viable, making ammonia the preferred carrier for the long-distance transport of hydrogen."
—Rapson et al. . . .
"In contrast to the extreme temperature and pressures required by the H-B process, the specialist class of diazotrophic bacteria can reduce dinitrogen at ambient temperatures and pressure. These bacteria use an enzyme known as nitrogenase which converts dinitrogen (N2) and protons (H+) into NH3 and H2. Over the last five years, exciting progress has been made in developing processes whereby nitrogenase can be used to produce ammonia ex vivo which can be powered by renewable energy. This work has reignited interest in using nitrogenase enzymes for the production of ammonia and hydrogen, both of which have energy applications. Here, we outline key biochemical features of nitrogenase and how the recent advances can pave the way for solar powered enzymatic production of NH3 and H2."
—Rapson et al.
The authors noted that genome sequencing and DNA synthesis has grown rapidly over the last 20 years. These advances can be applied to building synthetic nitrogenase componentry.
Further, they note, advances in techniques such as directed evolution could allow the development of nitrogenase enzymes optimized for industrial applications. In addition, materials science can provide avenues to improve the fabrication of the bioelectrode with the potential to improve the stability of the enzyme. . . .
Hyundai Mipo Dockyard receives green light from Lloyd’s Register for ammonia-fueled ships
Mipo Dockyard Co., a unit of Korea Shipbuilding, has been given the green light for its ammonia-propelled ships from Lloyd’s Register. Hyundai Mipo Dockyard intends to commercialize the ammonia-propelled ships by 2025 in cooperation with global engine maker MAN Energy Solutions and Lloyd’s Register.
Ammonia has been attracting attention in the shipbuilding industry as an eco-friendly fuel for ships that does not emit carbon dioxide when it is burned.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted mandatory steps under which carriers are required to operate a fleet of vessels designed to cut emissions of carbon dioxide by more than 30% by 2025 compared with 2008.
The IMO is also considering further reducing emission levels by 40% by 2030 and 70 percent by 2050.
From 1 Jan. 2020, the IMO lowered the sulfur cap on fuel content from 3.5% to 0.5%. . . .
Korea Shipbuilding and Hyundai Heavy set up a center in March in Ulsan to develop ships powered by both liquefied natural gas (LNG) engines and fuel cells by late 2021.
Microsoft used hydrogen fuel cells to power a data center for two days straight
This will help Microsoft's efforts to become carbon neutral by 2030.
Microsoft announced Monday that hydrogen fuel cells powered a row of its datacenter servers for 48 consecutive hours, bringing the company one step closer toward its goal of becoming “carbon negative” by 2030. Microsoft is exploring how the clean technology could be used to fuel more aspects of its operations. . . .
While Microsoft had already eliminated most of its dependence on fossil fuels, it still had a few diesel-powered backup generators at Azure data centers, according to a statement. Diesel is expensive while hydrogen fuel cell costs have plummeted, the statement said, so Microsoft officials decided to test hydrogen fuel cells as a replacement.
The idea to explore hydrogen fuel cells originated in 2018, when researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO used a proton exchange membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cell to power a rack of computers. Mark Monroe, a principal infrastructure engineer on Microsoft’s team for datacenter advanced development, said his team watched a demonstration and was intrigued with the technology.
Monroe’s team developed a 250-kilowatt fuel cell system, enough to power a full row of data center servers, and in September 2019 installed it at an Azure datacenter near Salt Lake City, Utah. In June, the system passed a 48-hour test. The team plans to test a 3-megawatt fuel system next, which matches the size of current diesel-powered backup generators.
It’s possible that an Azure data center could be equipped and run entirely on fuel cells, a hydrogen storage tank and an electrolyzer that converts water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, Monroe said. These systems could integrate with the electric power grid to provide load balancing services. Further, hydrogen-powered long-haul vehicles could come to datacenters to refuel. . . .