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RegGuheert
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Re: Biofuels thread

Sat Apr 22, 2017 7:32 am

GRA wrote:Considering we're less than 1/5th of the way through the 21st Century, I'd say their conclusion is far more decisive than is justified. It could well be true, or it could well not be. The next 10 or maybe 20 years, sure, if there are no major breakthroughs.
No, they got it right. Biofuel production is an extremely wasteful use of valuable land. Here is a comparison of projected algae-based biofuel production with CURRENT PV+BEV technology and current corn-based ethanol biofuels:

Current PV+BEV technology: 1,000,000 miles per acre per year
Projected future algae-based biofuel: 500,000 miles per acre per year
Current Ethanol+ICEV technology: 10,000 miles per acre per year

In addition, the PV is lightweight and can (and is) installed on top of buildings, so it does not use valuable farmland which could be used to grow food for growing fuel.
RegGuheert
2011 Leaf SL Demo vehicle
2011 miles at purchase. 10K miles on Apr 14, 2013. 20K miles (55.7Ah) on Aug 7, 2014, 30K miles (52.0Ah) on Dec 30, 2015, 40K miles (49.8Ah) on Feb 8, 2017.
Enphase Inverter Measured MTBF: M190, M215, M250, S280

GRA
Posts: 6829
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Biofuels thread

Sat Apr 22, 2017 3:23 pm

RegGuheert wrote:
GRA wrote:Considering we're less than 1/5th of the way through the 21st Century, I'd say their conclusion is far more decisive than is justified. It could well be true, or it could well not be. The next 10 or maybe 20 years, sure, if there are no major breakthroughs.
No, they got it right. Biofuel production is an extremely wasteful use of valuable land. Here is a comparison of projected algae-based biofuel production with CURRENT PV+BEV technology and current corn-based ethanol biofuels:

Current PV+BEV technology: 1,000,000 miles per acre per year
Projected future algae-based biofuel: 500,000 miles per acre per year
Current Ethanol+ICEV technology: 10,000 miles per acre per year

In addition, the PV is lightweight and can (and is) installed on top of buildings, so it does not use valuable farmland which could be used to grow food for growing fuel.

Seems to me the major theoretical advantage of algae-based biofuels is that you don't need land to grow it. Figuring out how to do that cost-effectively in the ocean is the major technical challenge. I agree that growing biofuels on land otherwise suited to growing food's a bad idea, but then we're not talking about replacing all transportation with biofuels, only that which has to be liquid fueled due to operational requirements: long-range aviation for sure, and and maybe some others. Efficiency is great, but it doesn't override practical considerations.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

User avatar
RegGuheert
Posts: 5421
Joined: Mon Mar 19, 2012 4:12 am
Delivery Date: 16 Mar 2012
Leaf Number: 5926
Location: Northern VA

Re: Biofuels thread

Sat Apr 22, 2017 7:16 pm

GRA wrote:Seems to me the major theoretical advantage of algae-based biofuels is that you don't need land to grow it. Figuring out how to do that cost-effectively in the ocean is the major technical challenge. I agree that growing biofuels on land otherwise suited to growing food's a bad idea, but then we're not talking about replacing all transportation with biofuels, only that which has to be liquid fueled due to operational requirements: long-range aviation for sure, and and maybe some others. Efficiency is great, but it doesn't override practical considerations.
No argument with any of that.
RegGuheert
2011 Leaf SL Demo vehicle
2011 miles at purchase. 10K miles on Apr 14, 2013. 20K miles (55.7Ah) on Aug 7, 2014, 30K miles (52.0Ah) on Dec 30, 2015, 40K miles (49.8Ah) on Feb 8, 2017.
Enphase Inverter Measured MTBF: M190, M215, M250, S280

GRA
Posts: 6829
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Biofuels thread

Mon Apr 24, 2017 3:13 pm

Via GCC:
Air Canada to operate biofuel flights in support of environmental research on contrails and emissions
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2017/04 ... anada.html

. . . This project will use advanced sensing equipment mounted on a research aircraft operated by the NRC to measure the impact of biofuel blends on contrail formation by aircraft on five biofuel flights operated by Air Canada between Montreal and Toronto in the coming days, weather permitting. During these flights the National Research Council of Canada will trail the Air Canada aircraft with a modified T-33 research jet to sample and test the contrail biofuel emissions. The sustainable biofuel is produced by AltAir Fuels from used cooking oil and supplied by SkyNRG.

A reduction in the thickness and coverage of contrails produced by the jet engines of aircraft could reduce aviation’s impact on the environment, an important beneficial effect of sustainable biofuel usage in aviation. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 6829
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Biofuels thread

Fri May 05, 2017 3:58 pm

Via GCC:
Singapore Airlines & CAAS partner on “Green Package” flights; biofuels, optimized operations and fuel-efficient A350-950
Singapore Airlines & CAAS partner on “Green Package” flights; biofuels, optimized operations and fuel-efficient A350-950

Singapore Airlines (SIA), in partnership with the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS), has started operating a series of 12 “green package” flights over a three-month period on its non-stop San Francisco-Singapore route. The green package flights are the first to combine the use of biofuels, fuel-efficient aircraft—SIA’s Airbus A350-900—and optimized flight operations. CAAS is facilitating the use of optimized flight operations and Air Traffic Management (ATM) best practices which reduce fuel burn and carbon emissions for the flights.

The first of the 12 flights, SQ31, departed San Francisco at 1121hrs (San Francisco Time) on 1 May 2017 and arrived in Singapore at 1910 hrs (Singapore Time) on 2 May with 206 passengers on board. Over the three-month period, flight SQ31 will be powered by a combination of HEFA (Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acids), a sustainable biofuel produced from used cooking oils, and conventional jet fuel. The biofuel, produced by AltAir Fuels, will be supplied and delivered to San Francisco by SkyNRG in collaboration with North American Fuel Corporation (NAFCO), a wholly owned subsidiary of China Aviation Oil (Singapore), and EPIC Fuels. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 6829
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Biofuels thread

Wed May 10, 2017 6:34 pm

Via GCC:
Praj cellulosic ethanol demo plant running in India; commercial projects coming
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2017/05 ... -praj.html

Nitin Gadkari, India’s Minister for Road Transport, Highways and Shipping, recently inaugurated Praj’s cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant near Pune, India. The plant is India’s first integrated bio-refinery, built to showcase Praj’s proprietary process technology to produce ethanol from agricultural waste.

The demonstration plant has the capacity to produce 1 million liters (264,000 gallons US) of ethanol annually from a variety of biomass such as rice and wheat straw, cotton stalks, sugarcane trash, bagasse, corn cobs and stover. Backed by its expertise and experience of well integrated first-generation technologies, Praj is confident that its second-generation ethanol technology will produce ethanol at the lowest cost and GHG emissions.

. . . Praj has already signed MoUs with Indian Oil Corporation and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd to be their technology partners for certain projects in India.

In the first phase, about 10 to 12 projects based on second-generation ethanol technology are being planned across the country, each with a capital outlay of approximately US$100 million and average capacity of 100,000 liters of ethanol per day.
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

GRA
Posts: 6829
Joined: Mon Sep 19, 2011 1:49 pm
Location: East side of San Francisco Bay

Re: Biofuels thread

Mon Jun 12, 2017 3:39 pm

Put these here, as there didn't seem to be a more appropriate place. Both via GCC:
Climeworks launches world’s first commercial plant to capture CO2 from air; potential for CO2-neutral fuels
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2017/06 ... works.html
. . . The Swiss direct air capture company—which has also partnered with Audi in that company’s e-fuels initiative (earlier post)—launched the commercial-scale Direct Air Capture (DAC) plant, featuring its patented technology that filters carbon dioxide from ambient air.

The plant is now supplying 900 tonnes of CO2 annually to a nearby greenhouse to help grow vegetables. The plant is a historic step for negative emissions technology—earmarked by the Paris climate agreement as being vital in the quest to limit a global temperature rise of 2 °C. Climeworks aims to capture 1% of global CO2 emissions by 2025.

. . . Climeworks developed its technology to capture atmospheric carbon with a filter, using mainly low-grade heat as an energy source. In Hinwil the DAC plant has been installed on the roof of a waste recovery facility—operated by the municipal administration union KEZO—with its waste heat powering the Climeworks DAC plant.

During the Climeworks capture process, CO2 is chemically deposited on the filter surface. Once the filter is saturated, the CO2 is then isolated at a temperature of about 100 °C. The pure captured CO2 gas can then be sold to customers in key markets, including: commercial agriculture; food and beverage industries; the energy sector; and the automotive industry. In Hinwil, Climeworks provides a continuous supply of CO2 through an underground pipeline to a greenhouse 400m away. . . .

The Hinwil plant will operate as a three-year demonstration project in co-operation with the partners Gebrüder Meier and KEZO, and with a contribution towards non-amortizable costs by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). . . .


Soletair demo plant produces renewable hydrocarbon fuel from CO2 captured from the air
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2017/06 ... etair.html

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) are beginning testing of the Soletair demo plant, which uses air-captured carbon dioxide to produce renewable fuels and chemicals. . . .

The aim of the project is to demonstrate the technical performance of the overall process and produce 200 liters of fuels and other hydrocarbons for research purposes. The demo plant incorporates the entire process chain, and comprises four separate units: a solar power plant; equipment for separating carbon dioxide and water from the air; a section that uses electrolysis to produce hydrogen; and synthesis equipment for producing a crude-oil substitute from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. . . .

    Phase 1: Renewable energy. Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity is used as a renewable energy source in the Soletair system to produce electricity especially for the hydrogen production unit—the most energy intensive part in the system. The renewable energy plant consists of flat roof, carport, wall, 2-axis tracking, and manual tracking solar PV installations. The total installed power is 206.5 kW.

    Phase 2: Hydrogen production. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is used for hydrogen production . . . Hydrogen is used with recycled carbon dioxide to produce renewable fuels, raw materials, and chemicals. The hydrogen gas can also be used as a chemical energy storage and can later be reconverted into electricity in a fuel cell, albeit with an additional penalty in terms of losses in conversion. The hydrogen production system is built in a standard shipping container and virtually connected to the 206.5 kW solar PV power plant at LUT. . . .

    Phase 3: Direct air capture. Direct air capture (DAC) is the carbon source of the SOLETAIR project. DAC falls under the class of carbon sequestration technologies. However, direct air capture is the only carbon capture technology that can directly capture CO2 previously emitted in the atmosphere. When surplus renewable energy drives the unit, DAC has the potential of being 100% negative carbon emission technology.

    The current DAC unit is a modified version of air-scrubbing units for civil shelters. . . .

    Phase 4: Mobile synthesis (MOBSU). The MOBSU uses Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to combine carbon and hydrogen and produce valuable gas, liquid and solid products for various uses. The Soletair team is currently working on two different production lines which are tailored for either natural gases or liquid and wax component production. These units are positioned side by side inside the Mobile Synthesis Unit. . . .

    Phase 5: Refining. The share each type of product from the MOBSU varies depending on the reaction conditions and the catalyst used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. It is essential to utilize all of these products fully to make an economically feasible process.

    The renewable product that is in gaseous form at room temperature consists of methane, the main component of natural gas, and other light hydrocarbons. It is easy to separate the gaseous fraction from the liquid and solid products. In larger refineries light olefins—ethylene, propylene and butenes—are separated from this fraction. These basic petrochemicals form the basis for the manufacture of a wide range of plastics and other products. On the other hand, the light paraffins generally known as Liquefied Petroleum Gas, are sold to customers to be used for instance in stoves, grills and refrigerators. . . .

    The liquid product can be fractioned by distillation to renewable gasoline and middle-distillate hydrocarbons. The gasoline fraction is further hydrotreated and reformed over a platinum catalyst in order to increase its octane number and to improve other characteristics for motor use. The middle-distillate fraction is also hydrotreated and thereafter distilled to renewable jet-fuel and/or diesel.

    Phase 6: Renewable consumer products. When the Soletair process is operated in the Fischer-Tropsch mode, the main part of the renewable consumer product is liquid fuels: gasoline, kerosene and diesel. If the renewable hydrocarbons are refined to olefins and aromatics instead of fuels, wide range of possible renewable consumer products exists. . . .
Guy [I have lots of experience designing/selling off-grid AE systems, some using EVs but don't own one. Local trips are by foot, bike and/or rapid transit].

The 'best' is the enemy of 'good enough'. Copper shot, not Silver bullets.

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